Erosion control

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  • Soil erosion is a hazard traditionally associated with agriculture in tropical and semi-arid areas and is important for its long-term effects on soil productivity and sustainable agriculture. It is, however, a problem of wider significance occurring additionally on land devoted to forestry, transport and recreation. Erosion also leads to environmental damage through sedimentation, pollution and increased flooding. The costs associated with the movement and deposition of sediment in the landscape frequently outweigh those arising from the long-term loss of soil in eroding fields.

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  • The book deals with several aspects of soil erosion, focusing on its connection with the agricultural world. Chapters' topics are various, ranging from irrigation practices to soil nutrient, land use changes or tillage methodologies. The book is subdivided into fourteen chapters, sorted in four sections, grouping different facets of the topic: introductive case studies, erosion management in vineyards, soil erosion issue in dry environments, and erosion control practices.

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  • Agrodok 11 Erosion control in the tropics Hil Kuypers Anne Mollema Egger Topper Agromisa Foundation, Wageningen, 2005. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by print, photocopy, microfilm or any other means, without written permission from the publisher.

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  • 5 Agronomic methods to control erosion Agronomic methods include those erosion control measures that are related to arable farming. It is concerned with crop cultivation itself as well as tillage operations. Arable farming is an integral part of the natural surroundings.

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  • 9 Conditions for the success of operations Erosion control will have the best chance of success if the underlying causes are removed. Unfortunately this is not always within reach of the farmer concerned or the well-intentioned development worker either.

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  • The search for oil occurs in geological sediments, as opposed to volcanic rocks. Several processes are involved in the creation of sediments. First, the inland continental volcanic rock is continuously being weakened and eroded by weathering processes (mechanical (through water, ice and wind) and chemical erosion). Secondly and simultaneously, the eroded material is being transported by water, ice and wind and gradually the material may be broken down into smaller pieces (from boulders to gravel, to sand, to silt and finally to clay).

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  • Soil loss for erosion is a natural phenomenon in soil dynamics, influenced by climate, soil intrinsic properties, and morphology, that can both trigger and enhance the process. Anthropic activities, like inappropriate agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, forest fires and construction activities, may exert a remarkable impact on erosion processes or, on the other hand, contribute to soil erosion mitigation through a sustainable management of natural resources.

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  • 2 How to recognize erosion The previous chapter explained how erosion can impede development of large areas and even whole countries. Now an attempt will be made to illustrate the ways in which a farmer is confronted with the physical characteristics of erosion in the daily work.

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  • 6 Using cropping systems to control erosion Rotation and fallow Many tropical farming systems have originated from shifting cultivation; a system of food production based on a rotation of cultivation followed by a long fallow period. The fallow period ensures a natural recovery of soil fertility.

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  • 3 The erosion process Some understanding of the way in which the erosion process takes place is needed to appreciate the usefulness of preventive measures. A few factors will be mentioned which together determine how much and what type of erosion is likely to occur.

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  • 4 How erosion effects agriculture In Chapter 2 a few examples have been given as to how erosion can be observed in the field. Sooner or later, all the changes observed have consequences for agriculture. To mention one example: small rills, unlike gullies, can still be ploughed by the farmer.

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  • 8 Underlying causes of erosion In the previous chapters we have seen how the chance of erosion can be lessened by taking certain precautions. However, circumstances are sometimes such that a farmer cannot adopt another method of production that would be less damaging.

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  • 7 Measures to reduce runoff Often technical measures against erosion are not very beneficial in themselves. They should go hand in hand with cultivation methods and good guidance. An important question is whether the farmer himself can pay for the operations and/or execute them.

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  • 10 Conclusion After reading this booklet you will probably be feeling confused by all the different ways to control erosion and what it entails. Perhaps you would have preferred some concrete advice; now you can’t see the wood for the trees! Yet you will appreciate that we cannot give concrete advice to start you off because the situations

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  • This British Standard is the official English language version of EN 13253:2000. The UK participation in its preparation was entrusted to Technical Committee B/553, Geomembranes and geotextiles, which has the responsibility to: Ð aid enquirers to understand the text; Ð present to the responsible European committee any enquiries on the interpretation, or proposals for change, and keep the UK interests informed; Ð monitor related international and European developments and promulgate them in the UK....

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  • Visiting a nice lake is like going to a grocery store that has everything. But what happens if the lake is lacking an item or two? Maybe one or more lake projects can address the need. Although this book has several hundred project ideas, many of them are updated project ideas that have been previously conducted one way or another. For example, dredging has been occurring for over 4000 years. Fish culture, aquatic plant management (using handpulling techniques), and waste disposal are also thousands of years old....

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  • Soils are aggregates of mineral particles, and together with air and/or water in the void spaces, they form three-phase systems. A large portion of the earth’s surface is covered by soils, and they are widely used as construction and foundation materials. Soil mechanics is the branch of engineering that deals with the engineering properties of soils and their behavior under stress.

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  • 1 Introduction Ecological engineering combines the disciplines of ecology and engineering in order to solve environmental problems. The approach is to interface ecosystems with technology to create new, hybrid systems. Designs are evolving in this field for wastewater treatment, erosion control.

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  • Some twenty five countries have experimented with environmental accounting over the past twenty years. A few European countries have established physical accounting systems which are routinely compiled and applied to economic and environmental policy-making. Many other countries have undertaken more limited or one-time experiments and case studies with monetary environmental accounts, focused on issues such as forestry, soil erosion, and minerals depletion. A few examples suggest the richness of their experience.

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  • This book is a compilation of 29 chapters focused on: pesticides and food production, environmental effects of pesticides, and pesticides mobility, transport and fate. The first book section addresses the benefits of the pest control for crop protection and food supply increasing, and the associated risks of food contamination.

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