A rights-based approach to access is based on the framework of international values and
standards, set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (see
www.unhchr.ch/udhr/index.htm) and other international human rights conventions. These are
primarily concerned with promoting the wellbeing and free choice of all individuals, especially
people made vulnerable through poverty, stigma, marginalisation or violence.
This should have been expected. Economic demography can be a most frustrating
subject. Itwould seemthat for any theoretical inference, nomatter howinnocuous, there is some
set of data from some part of the world over some period that is not consonant with it.
40 years of demographic research have uncovered that the factors underlying fertility behaviour
include not only the techniques that are available to households for controlling their size, but also
the household demand for children. The latter in particular is influenced by a number of factors
The basic purpose of stock market is to provide capital for investment and for
the investors liquidity. The need for such capital is expected to increases with size of
the enterprise. For large companies to emerge and function effectively, there is a
need to pool risk capital which individual entrepreneurs cannot bring in on their
own or with the help of relatives, friends and acquaintances.
Another factor is the ease with which you can scale or modify your system. This is especially important if
your test system has the potential to change during the course of its lifetime. One example of this is if
you are building a system to test a product family that is continually expanding. In such a case, you may
need to add new functionality to the system without making significant changes that could force you to
redesign your test rack.
The platform that serves as the core of your test system must be able to address a significant...
We Americans assume that our economic system will always scamper
to provide us with the products we want. Special orders don’t
upset us! I want my MTV! The truth is more complicated, especially
in our education system, which is paid for by the students
but controlled by the professoriate. Witness the perverse success
of the bloated science textbook.
Balanced and coordinated advances within these research areas will pave
the way to meeting the 2020 vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable
resource use. Figures 11A to 11D detail goals for these priority research areas.
Cost of materials surfaced many times as a major issue during the steering
group’s investigations. Lowering unit costs is critical for sustainable economic
The complex system for reporting and reviewing credit involves a large number of
participants who fall generally into one of six categories: consumers; data repositories;
data users; data furnishers; credit reporting agencies; and analytical service providers.
Approximately 190-200 million consumers have credit reports maintained by the three
major credit repositories (Experian, Equifax, and Trans Union)
The crucial assumption that allows as to solve the two-good model relatively simply is the
ability of the shoppers to combine purchases from two stores without incurring additional
cost. This assumption can be justied for internet shopping or the cases when as Stahl,
II (1989) puts it \Casual empiricism suggests that there is a non-negligible measure of
consumers who seem to derive enjoyment from shopping itself".
Picture Association of America, the MPAA), and appointed as its president Will H. Hays,
the former postmaster general in the administration of Warren G. Harding and an upright,
teetotaling elder of the Presbyterian Church. Hays put the industry on a solid financial basis
with his contacts on Wall Street, kept federal censors at bay with his influence in
Washington, D.C, and placated the moral guardians with soothing words and Protestant
These banking successes should be celebrated. They pave the way for broadening access
to finance for hundreds of millions, perhaps even billions, of low-income people who today lack
ready access to formal financial services. Such access on its own is not yet proven to increase
economic growth or to reduce poverty on a large-scale level—and, as a general proposition, we
doubt that it will on its own.
Accounting standards around the world have evolved over centuries of business
and capital market development. In this process, accounting standards historically
were designed to meet the needs of each nation’s capital markets. Those stan-
dards that were found to work well in the legal, cultural, political and economic
context of each nation became the “generally accepted accounting principles,” or
GAAP, for that particular jurisdiction. Naturally, different norms in each nation led
to different GAAPs in each nation.
The definition of gender roles is so central in Afghan society and culture, that any perceived or
planned changes require consultations not only with the household but also with the larger
community. Men and women to a large extent share the same cultural ethos and values,
including their conception of gender roles, and they seek to validate these within their
communities. Years of turmoil have furthermore left communities to their own devices,
strengthening the inherent distrust of external authorities and increased reliance upon
Organic crops must be protected from potential
contamination by adjoining conventional farms,
as well as from non-organic fields in split
operations. The drift and run-off of prohibited
substances, as well as the pollen drift from GMO
varieties, can compromise the farm’s organic
certification status. The certifying agency can
require water, soil, and plant testing in cases
where contamination is suspected.
Clearly, the Babylonians understood that the builder will always know
more about the risks than the client, and can hide fragilities and improve
his proﬁtability by cutting corners—in, say, the foundation. The builder can
also fool the inspector (or the regulator). The person hiding risk has a large
informational advantage over the one looking for it.
The potency of the classical rule lies in the idea that people do not
consciously wish to harm themselves. We feel much safer on a plane be-
cause the pilot, and not a drone, is at the controls.
This guide provides practical guidelines for policy makers on how best to review the process of policy
development and establish strategic plans for micro, small and medium enterprise development. It is a
further tool and reference source for all policy makers and actors dealing with small businesses, especially
in transition countries seeking to further develop their market economies.
Private sector development relies on a partnership between the private and public sectors.
Using the same type of estimate, the full trade liberalisation of manufactured goods would
lead to earnings of around US$96 billion per year for the developing countries, ie, 48% of
total profits. Although significant headway has already been made in the trade
liberalisation of manufactured products, potential profits are still important. However, most
earnings derive from trade liberalisation between the developing countries themselves.
the Council is chaired by Kurt Roeloffs, Global Chief
investment officer of RREEF Real Estate. patricia Connoll
Director of sustainability at RREEF Real Estate, is Co-Cha
of the Council. Kurt also oversees sustainability research,
strategy, practices, and resources. andrew nelson is a
Director of Research at RREEF Real Estate and leads
RREEF Real Estate’s global research on sustainable
investment practices and industry trends in sustainability.
Islam and Watanapalachaikul (2003) showed a strong, signiﬁcant long-run
relationship between stock prices and macroeconomic factors (interest rate,
bonds price, foreign exchange rate, price-earning ratio, market capitalization,
and consumer price index) during 1992-2001 in Thailand.
Hassan (2003) employed Johansen’s (1988, 1991, 1992b) and Johansen
and Juselius’ (1990) multivariate cointegration techniques to test for the
existence of long-term relationships between share prices in the Persian
The Guide explores qualitative research and pretesting in depth—areas where our colleagues
have asked for additional help. These in-depth sections offer detailed, step-by-step instructions,
techniques, and aides to help readers understand and correctly implement qualitative research
and pretesting techniques. Sample completed forms are included throughout the book, while
blank forms are offered in the appendices.
The book also includes specific information on each medium: print, radio, video, and computer-
Most women in prison are mothers and usually the primary or sole carer for their children.
Research from many countries has shown that, when fathers are imprisoned, the mother
usually continues to care for the children. However, when a mother is imprisoned, the father
often does not continue to care for the children, resulting in large numbers of children being
institutionalized (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2008).