The essential oil industry is under threat from numerous issues at present. Rising
agricultural input costs, particularly petrochemical based fertilizers and fuels are squeezing
farmers’ profit margins. Rising food prices and the increasing value of housing and industrial
land prices is creating competition for land, particularly around populated areas. Adverse
weather conditions and changing climate are creating both short and long term problems.
Poor crop yields are occurring much more regularly than before because of unusually heavy
rain, hail, floods, heat-waves and cold snaps....
The methods for obtaining simultaneously essential oil and shikimic acid from star anise fruit (Illicium verum Hook) were investigated. From obtained results, we chose a simple and effective method for desired purpose. With this method, distillation of essential oil and extraction of shikimic acid were simultaneously carried out in the round bottom flask of the Clevenger apparatus. The yield of essential oil and shikimic acid were 9.5% and 5.6% (r.m), respectively as well as the quality of the products is very good. ...
Essential oils (also called volatile oils) generally extracted by
distillation from plants are hydrophobic liquids containing
volatile aromatic compounds. The essential oils are widely
used in perfumes, cosmetics as well as in food and drink as
flavor additives. Some essential oils show multiple pharmacological
activities and have been considered as the major active
fractions of herbal medicines [1–3].
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from Launaea resedifolia L
Chemical composition of essential oil of Machilus Japonica Siebold & Zucc. (Lauraceae) from Vietnam were studied. The essential oil were obtained from the leaves of young plants (3-4 years) by hydrodistillation. The identification of the components was performed using GC, GC/MS. The main components in this species identified were α-phellandrene (60.2%), βphellandrene (10.5%), p-cymene (20.3%),
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành toán học được đăng trên tạp chí toán học quấc tế đề tài: Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from Launaea resedifolia L.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from Launaea resedifolia L.
VNU Journal of Science, Natural Sciences and Technology 26 (2010) 161-164
Fresh leaves of Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob. from Ha Tinh were steam distilled to produce an oil in 0.15% yield. The essential oil was analysis by a combination of capillary GC and GC/MS. Seventy eight compounds were detected in the oil, of which more than 95.18% were terpenoids. The major components were (E)-β-ocimene (13.35%), β-caryophyllene (27.20%) and bicyclogermacrene (18.16%).
The persona lifecycle is a metaphoric framework that breaks the persona process into phases
similar to those of human procreation and development. As shown in Figure 2.1 , the fi ve
phases in this framework bring structure to the potentially complicated process of persona
creation and highlight critical (yet often overlooked or ignored) aspects of persona use:
● Family planning — Before you begin any persona effort, you should fi gure out what
problems you’re trying to solve and what materials (specifi cally, data sources) are already
available for you to use.
Prices are of great importance in macroeconomics as indeed they are in microeconomics. However, in
microeconomics we are more interested in prices of individual goods and services and such prices are
rarely important for the economy as a whole although there are exceptions (for example, the price of
oil). In macroeconomics we are more interested in how prices change on average. We define the price
level as a weighted average of several different prices.
Our results generally showed that in the investigated microbial community
autotrophic component was dominant over the heterotrophic component during the winter
season, while dominance of heterotrophic component in the microbial community was
observed during the warmer seasons. Further, within the prokaryotic community
heterotrophic prokaryotes were mostly dominant throughout the studied area.
Chromatography was gained more importance initially after discovered in the
preparative chromatography using large amount of the sample for the separation all
components properly and collect each in their pure forms. Recently analytical
chromatography found many application areas. The purpose of preparative Analytical
chromatography is done normally with smaller amounts of material and is for
measuring the relative proportions of analytes in a mixture after discovered some
detectors which need very low amount of the analyte and have proper detection
Yadav et al. (2007) studied on fertilizer industrial discharge showed that some components
in the discharge may interact with each other and produce toxic to aquatic organisms. For
instance, the interaction between dissolved oxygen and ammonia changed the respiratory
physiology in fresh water fish. In addition, results showed that the toxicity of the effluent in
fish depends on concentration and duration of exposure.
This book provides information on alternative and complementary
therapies that can expand the healing spectrum for
individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). It discusses healing
perspectives and paradigms that have not been a part of traditional
modern medicine but that, nevertheless, comprised a key component
of healing armamentaria throughout much of mankind’s history.
Lipids (fats and oils) are a wide range of organic molecules that serve several functions in organisms. Lipids are essential components of our diet, highlighting their important contribution in energy, representing 9 kcal/g (or 37.7 kJ/g), and by some components relevant to the metabolism, such as essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins and sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols).
Interest in food lipids has grown dramatically in recent years as a result of findings related to their
health effects. Fats and oils have often been condemned because of their high energy value and due
to potential health problems associated with certain saturated fatty acids as well as trans fats.
However, lipids are important in that they provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins as
well as flavor, texture, and mouthfeel to foods.
To better create favorable conditions for the cooperative management of fisheries resources in the Great Lakes, Great
Lake Fishery Commission (GLFC) proposed a general strategic plan of Great Management
Lake Fisheries (General Plan) in 1980 (GLFC 1994). This commitment to inter-jurisdictional
coordinate fisheries management based on an approach which, according to an ecosystem
common goal for all.
Since there is a premium put on specialized talents and backgrounds and the need to
attract capital by performing exceptionally well, I have found that investors require relatively
high minimum annual rates of returns in the 20-25% range. The risky and illiquid nature of this
market make such required returns necessary. As we will show, however, the average
performance in this market over the last 11 years, although good, has been considerably below
the 20-25% per year range. The remainder of this chapter reports on the performance of
defaulted bonds in the 1987-1998 period.
Prices are of great importance in macroeconomics as indeed they are in microeconomics. However, in microeconomics we are more interested in prices of individual goods and services and such prices are rarely important for the economy as a whole although there are exceptions (for example, the price of oil). In macroeconomics we are more interested in how prices change on average. We define the pricelevel as a weighted average of several different prices.