A report is written each time tissue is
removed from the body to check for
cancer. These are called pathology
reports. Each report has the results
of the studies done on the removed
tissue. The information in these
reports will help you and your
doctors decide on the best treatment
Reading your pathology report can
be scary and confusing. Different labs
may use different words to describe
the same thing. On page 30, you’ll
find an easy-to-understand word list.
In its fifth edition, Cancer Medicine has been named eponymously to honor its founding
editors James F. Holland and Emil Frei III, two giants of medical oncology. The Holland-Frei
Cancer Medicine reflects their dedication to innovative, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary
care of cancer patients, as well as their belief in the importance of grounding such care in a more
fundamental understanding of cancer biology. It is to their vision and the example that they have
established over the last four decades that this book is dedicated.
Defining the Extent of Disease and the Prognosis The first priority in patient management after the diagnosis of cancer is established and shared with the patient is to determine the extent of disease. The curability of a tumor usually is inversely proportional to the tumor burden. Ideally, the tumor will be diagnosed before symptoms develop or as a consequence of screening efforts (Chap. 78). A very high proportion of such patients can be cured.
Following demonstration of activity in animal models, conventional chemotherapeutic agents are further evaluated to define an optimal schedule of administration and arrive at a drug formulation designed for a given route and schedule. Safety testing in two species on an analogous schedule of administration defines the starting dose for a phase I trial in humans. This is established as a fraction, usually one-sixth to one-tenth, of the dose just causing easily reversible toxicity in the more sensitive animal species.
It is becoming increasingly clear that signals generated in tumor microenvi-ronments are crucial to tumor cell behavior, such as survival, progression
and metastasis. The establishment of these malignant behaviors requires
that tumor cells acquire novel adhesion and migration properties to detach
from their original sites and to localize to distant organs.
The molecular analysis of human cancer is complicated by the difficulty in
obtaining pure populations of tumor cells to study. One traditional method of
obtaining a pure representation has been establishing cancer cell lines from
primary tumors. However, this technique is time consuming and of low yield.
Artifacts of cell culture include the selection of genetic alterations not present
in primary tumors (1,2) and the alteration of gene expression as compared to
primary tumors (3).
In addition to incidence figures, population-based cancer registries that
conduct adequate follow-up of their patients are able to estimate the preva-
lence of cancer. Prevalence figures give an indication of the burden of the dis-
ease in the community. Cancer registries generally assume that once diag-
nosed with cancer, an individual remains a prevalent case until death. Thus,
prevalence may be estimated from data on incidence and survival.
The most established nationwide medical registry in Germany is the Perinatal Registry, which collects
maternal health records concerning pregnancy, delivery and perinatal outcome from now more than
1100 hospitals. Over the past 16 years, data collection was transformed from printed questionnaires to
digital records. A special web-based information source of the German Perinatal Registry does not
America’s dairy farmers participate in a national check-off program that provides
monies to promote the consumption of dairy foods. A large portion of these funds
is used to support nutrition research, communication, and education. Since 1915,
the National Dairy Council® has been committed to establishing programs and
developing educational materials based on current scientific research, as well as
providing sound scientific information in all of its communications.
This book is an update of the first edition of the Handbook of Dairy Foods and
Isolated blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) represents about 5% of annual trauma mortality
from blunt trauma. As part of multiple-site injury (polytrauma), BAT contributes another
15% of trauma mortality. In the abdominal trauma, the best exploration strategy is one that
leads most quickly and reliably in the diagnosis of surgical injury. This strategy must be
established based on hemodynamic status and clinical guidance but should never delay a
Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy usually lead to intrauterine growth retardation,
which is one of the main causes of foetal and infant undernutrition in developing countries.
Every year, 30 million newborns, or 23% of 126 million births per year, are affected by
intrauterine growth retardation; by contrast, in developed countries the rate is only about 2%
(World Health Organization 2000a).
Differentiated thyroid cancer is the fastest‐growing cancer in women; it increased 2.4%
per year during 1980 to 1997 and 6.5% per year during 1997 to 2006 in the USA according
to the National Cancer Instituteʹs Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER).
On the other hand, the refinement of new approaches for surveillance of patients with an
established diagnosis of thyroid cancer is leading to the observation that many patients,
previously thought to be cured, have evidence of minimal residual disease, a condition
with which we still do not know how to manage properly....
These concerns were behind the establishment in 1983 of the World Commission on
Environment and Development by the UN General Assembly. The Commission is an
independent body, linked to but outside the control of governments and the UN system.
Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine has a long and dis-
tinguished tradition in the ﬁeld of hematology. Maxwell
Wintrobe, whose work actually established hematology
as a distinct subspecialty of medicine, was a founding
editor of the book and participated in the ﬁrst seven edi-
tions, taking over for Tinsley Harrison as editor-in-chief
on the sixth and seventh editions. Wintrobe, born in
1901, began his study of blood in earnest in 1927 as
an assistant in medicine at Tulane University in New
Le Trong Trai et al. (2001) argued that with an abundance of heavily degraded
land available for rehabilitation, forest management and other land uses, there is
considerable potential for cash earning activities in the buffer zone (for example
through economic crop plantations). This activity would also reduce the overall
pressure on the forest resources in the nature reserve. They also suggested that
current arrangements for forest development and management in the bare lands
are costly, create social tensions and seem to be unsustainable in the long run.
Concerns about rising health care costs and affordability of health care for families
persist despite the enactment of comprehensive health reform legislation in March
2010 (the Affordable Care Act, or ACA).
The ACA changed the health care landscape
considerably by providing significant financial assistance to help people with low and
moderate incomes afford coverage and associated cost sharing.
The quality assurance teams and managers supported the evolution of the
breast screening programme locally, and professional quality assurance
groups were developed with the relevant associations and royal colleges
at a national level. In 1990, a new post of national coordinator of the
NHSBSP was established, based at one of the regional heath authori-
ties. Mrs Julietta Patnick at the Trent Region in Sheffield was appointed,
and she is now the Director of the NHS Cancer Screening Programmes,
which includes the NHSBSP.
The concept of tissue engineering is to
regenerate target tissue by mimicking the developmental or regenerative process of that
tissue. Thus, it can be considered an ideal therapeutic option for treating various tissue
defects. Tissue engineering of skin, cartilage, and bone has already been shown both feasible
and effective in several clinical studies, and its efficacy has attracted significant attention
from both patients and doctors.
This study has also consulted other documents published elsewhere, such as Sarma
(1986) and Mink (1987). Sarma (1986), a Research Report published by IFPRI
(Washington), is concerned with the analysis and projections (to 2000) of use of cereals for
livestock feed in developing countries. Mink (1987) has addressed the use of corn in
livestock feed and the future of the corn economy in Indonesia. The study focussed on
current levels of corn use and likely future growth of corn-based livestock feeds in
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành y học tạp chí Medical Sciences dành cho các bạn sinh viên ngành y tham khảo đề tài: MALDI-TOF MS Combined With Magnetic Beads for Detecting Serum Protein Biomarkers and Establishment of Boosting Decision Tree Model for Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer...