Estimated water supply

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  • "Diseases related to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene are a huge burden in developing countries. It is estimated that 88% of diarrhoeal disease is caused by unsafe water supply, and inadequate sanitation and hygiene (WHO, 2004c). Many schools serve communities that have a high prevalence of diseases related to inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and where child malnutrition and other underlying health problems are common.

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  • The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Earth Science provides a compendium of more than 10,000 terms that are central to the broad range of disciplines comprising earth science. The coverage in this Second Edition is focused on the areas of climatology, geochemistry, geodesy, geography, geology, geophysics, hydrol- ogy, meteorology, and oceanography, with new terms added and others revised as necessary.

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  • Over the past 15 years, evidence has accumulated that the nation's ground water resource, which supplies more than 50 percent of the population's drinking water, is threatened not only by excessive overdrafts but also by contamination caused by past and present industrial, agricultural, and commercial activities. In the United States, it is estimated that more than 300,000 sites may have contaminated soil or ground water requiring some form of remediation (see Table 1-2 in Chapter 1).

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  • The earth’s surface is two-thirds water, yet most of this is undrinkable or unusable because it is either seawater or ice. Of the 1% that is available as fresh water, most is used for farming or industry. Fresh water pollution is the major problem because many rivers and streams are being polluted with pesticides, industrial waste, and sewage. In poor and developing countries, the addition of sewage to the sources of water leads to diseases, and even death. A United Nations’ report estimates that more than 78% of people drink from polluted water supplies.

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  • Water scarcity directly impacts business activities, raw material supply, intermediate supply chain, and product use in a variety of ways. Declines or disruptions in water supply can undermine industrial and manufacturing operations where water is needed for production, irrigation, material processing, cooling and/or washing and cleaning.

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  • As a result of enforcement actions and settlements for noncompliance with federal pollution control requirements, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that, for FY2011, regulated entities committed to invest an estimated $19.0 billion for judicially mandated pollution controls and cleanup, and for implementing mutually agreed upon (supplemental) environmentally beneficial projects. EPA estimates that these efforts achieved commitments to reduce, treat, or eliminate 1.8 billion pounds of pollutants in the environment, primarily from air and water.

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  • Northern China has long-standing water scarcity problems. In September 2008, after four-plus years of construction on a $2 billion 191-mile waterway, the city of Beijing began receiving water from the less populated southern regions of China. While the North-South pipeline will briefly ease the region’s water shortages, the Chinese government’s official news agency recently said the capital’s water supply could again reach a crisis point as early as 2010 due to population growth and rising domestic water consumption.

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