ESSAYS ON ENROLLMENT POLICIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION None of the estimates presented in this section supports the hypothesis that effective
schools are more likely to attract the best peer groups in markets with fragmented school
governance than in those where Tiebout choice is more difficult to exercise.
The IRS will be responsible for enforcing the mandate and collecting fines. By January 31 each year, the agency will receive enrollment information from private insurers and public programs for the previous calendar year; that information will include the name and Social Security number of every person covered by each plan and the dates of coverage. Policyholders will receive similar information from insurers. The exchanges will be required to report to the IRS the name and taxpayer identification number of every person who receives an affordability or hardship exemption.
The Panel for the Workshop on the State Children’s Health Insurance
Program wishes to thank the many people who contributed to the development
of the workshop and to the preparation of this report.
The workshop was sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary
for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) in the U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services. Caroline Taplin, of that agency, served as project officer
for the workshop.
Education. The adult literacy rate in Afghanistan is estimated to be 36%, while for adult
women it is estimated at 21%2 (2001). A significant leap in school enrollment has taken
place during the last couple of years, and more than four million children are now in school,
one-third of them girls, but this still represents only a little more than half of school-age
children and 40% of girls. These figures hide dramatic regional disparities, with girls
representing less than 15% of the total enrollment in nine provinces in the east and south.
Under the base enrollment scenario, the ACA is predicted
to result in an additional 900,000 individuals
enrolling in Medi-Cal by 2014, increasing to 1.2 million
by 2019. is includes an estimated 500,000 individuals
predicted to be enrolled in county Low-Income
Health Programs who will be automatically enrolled
in Medi-Cal in 2014.12 Under the enhanced scenario,
with a more aggressive enrollment and outreach
strategy, additional Medi-Cal enrollment would reach
1.4 million by 2014 and 1.6 million by 2019.
It is difﬁ cult to estimate the number of adult ESOL students in the
United States because many are highly mobile and some are undocu-
mented. According to the National Center for ESL Literacy Education,
“The most recent statistics from the U.S. Department of Education, Ofﬁ ce
of Vocational and Adult Education, show that 1,119,589 learners were
enrolled in federally funded, state-administered adult ESL classes. This
represents 42% of the enrollment in federally funded, state-administered
adult education classes” (Florez, personal communication, 2001).
Our base scenario for enrollment in the Exchange is
based on the probabilities found in the literature due
to changes in cost of coverage for individuals with different
incomes, health status, English proficiency, and
starting point of coverage. In the enhanced scenario,
we assume that language is not a barrier to enrollment,
that eligibility and enrollment processes and systems
are simplified, and that the state launches a robust
outreach and education effort to make individuals
aware of their coverage options.
We predict that in 2019, Medi-Cal coverage will
increase by 1.2 to 1.6 million (under the base and
enhanced scenarios, respectively). Enrollment in
Healthy Families will decline slightly as older children
under 133 percent FPL will now qualify for Medi-Cal.
An estimated 1.8 to 2.1 million will be enrolled in the
Exchange with subsidies, while 2.1 to 2.2 million will
remain in the non-group market or be enrolled in the
Exchange without subsidies.11 Finally, the number of
uninsured will decline by 1.8 to 2.7 million people,
leaving 3.0 to 4.0 million Californians without coverage.
An estimated 3 to 4 million Californians are predicted
to remain uninsured in 2019. Of those, slightly more
than 1 million will not be eligible for coverage options
under the ACA due to immigration status. Another
800,000 to 1.2 million will be eligible for Medi-Cal or
Healthy Families. If and when they seek care, they will
have the ability to enroll in coverage. Robust outreach
and education can also decrease the number of uninsured
who are not aware of coverage opportunities and
are therefore less likely to seek care or receive preventive
Using the CalSIM model, we predict changes in coverage
in California as a result of the ACA. Take up of
available coverage options in the model is based on a
wide range of factors, including the pre-policy starting
point, health status, household income, change in cost
to purchase coverage, and English proficiency. For
Medi-Cal, we assume that 61 percent of uninsured
newly eligible individuals, and 10 percent of those who
were previously eligible but not enrolled, enroll under
our base scenario. is assumption is based on current
Medi-Cal take up in the state.
In that spirit, we approach the costs of reaching the MDGs through two routes.
In the first route, we focus exclusively on the first goal, namely, reducing income poverty
by half between 1990 and 2015. Inasmuch as income poverty is linked to the other
targets, such as infant mortality and primary enrolment, achieving this goal will go some
way towards achieving the others. The link is stronger the more the actions to promote
growth are associated with those to promote human development. If we estimated the
costs by adding the costs of achieving each of the...
Why are the ﬁxed eﬀects estimates higher for those who do not attend top-25 schools? While
having wage observations both before and after schooling presents many advantages, it also in-
troduces problems associated with the program evaluation literature.
10 In particular, Ashenfelter
(1978) documented the dip in earnings which took place before individuals enrolled in job training
programs, something which may also occur when individuals go back to school.
11 Such a dip would
cause us to over-estimate the return to an MBA in a ﬁxed eﬀects framework.