Etiologic agent

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  • JC virus in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, an etiological agent or another component in a multistep process?

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Recovery of divergent avian bornaviruses from cases of proventricular dilatation disease: Identification of a candidate etiologic agent

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  • Bacterial biofilms are regarded to be the primary aetiological factor in the initiation of gingival inflammation and subsequent destruction of periodontal tissues (Offenbacher 1996) and three major specific pathogens have been repeatedly identified as etiologic agents, namely Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Tannerella forsythia (Tf) (Socransky et al. 1998).

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  • The discovery of Shigella as the etiologic agent of dysentery—a clinical syndrome of fever, intestinal cramps, and frequent passage of small, bloody, mucopurulent stools—is attributed to the Japanese microbiologist Kiyoshi Shiga, who isolated the Shiga bacillus (now known as Shigella dysenteriae type 1) from patients' stools in 1897 during a large and devastating dysentery epidemic. Shigella cannot be distinguished from Escherichia coli by DNA hybridization and remains a separate species only on historical and clinical grounds.

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  • Tetanus is a neurologic disorder, characterized by increased muscle tone and spasms, that is caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus occurs in several clinical forms, including generalized, neonatal, and localized disease. †A contributor to HPIM since the 12th edition, Dr. Abrutyn passed away on February 22, 2007. Etiologic Agent C. tetani is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive rod that forms an oval, colorless, terminal spore and thus assumes a shape resembling a tennis racket or drumstick.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 133. Tetanus Definition Tetanus is a neurologic disorder, characterized by increased muscle tone and spasms, that is caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus occurs in several clinical forms, including generalized, neonatal, and localized disease. †A contributor to HPIM since the 12th edition, Dr. Abrutyn passed away on February 22, 2007. Etiologic Agent C.

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  • Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2; Herpesvirus hominis) produce a variety of infections involving mucocutaneous surfaces, the central nervous system (CNS), and—on occasion—visceral organs. Prompt recognition and treatment reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HSV infections. Etiologic Agent The genome of HSV is a linear, double-strand DNA molecule (molecular weight, ~100 x 106 units) that encodes 90 transcription units with 84 identified proteins. The genomic structures of the two HSV subtypes are similar.

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  • Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by infection with influenza viruses. The illness affects the upper and/or lower respiratory tract and is often accompanied by systemic signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, myalgia, and weakness. Outbreaks of illness of variable extent and severity occur nearly every winter. Such outbreaks result in significant morbidity in the general population and in increased mortality rates among certain high-risk patients, mainly as a result of pulmonary complications.

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  • Mumps is an acute, systemic, communicable viral infection whose most distinctive feature is swelling of one or both parotid glands. Involvement of other salivary glands, the meninges, the pancreas, and the gonads also is common. Etiologic Agent Mumps virus, a paramyxovirus, is pleomorphic and has a diameter ranging from 100 to 300 nm. The virion is composed of RNA and seven proteins. The RNA is surrounded by an envelope composed of glycoproteins, including a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), a hemolysis cell fusion antigen (F), and a matrix envelope protein (M).

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  • Oncogenic viruses are the known etiologic agents in 15% – 20% of all human cancers. Their impact on global health is signifi cant. The fi rst recognition that cancer can be caused by a virus dates back to observations of Rous sarcoma virus in chickens almost 100 years ago. However, it was not until the 1970s that the mechanistic basis for retroviral transformation became clearer. That era was marked by the discovery of many viral oncogenes and counterpart cellular proto - oncogenes.

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  • Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease of global importance, as illustrated by recent large outbreaks in Asia, Central and South America, and the United States. The disease is caused by pathogenic leptospires and is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from inapparent infection to fulminant, fatal disease. In its mild form, leptospirosis may present as an influenza-like illness with headache and myalgias. Severe leptospirosis, characterized by jaundice, renal dysfunction, and hemorrhagic diathesis, is referred to as Weil's syndrome.

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  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) selectively infect the epithelium of skin and mucous membranes. These infections may be asymptomatic, produce warts, or be associated with a variety of both benign and malignant neoplasias. Etiologic Agent Papillomaviruses are members of the family Papillomaviridae. They are nonenveloped, measure 50–55 nm in diameter, have icosahedral capsids composed of 72 capsomeres, and contain a double-strand circular DNA genome of ~7900 base pairs.

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  • Etiology Acute otitis media typically follows a viral URI. The causative viruses (most commonly RSV, influenza virus, rhinovirus, and enterovirus) can themselves cause subsequent acute otitis media; more often, they predispose the patient to bacterial otitis media. Studies using tympanocentesis have consistently found S. pneumoniae to be the most important bacterial cause, isolated in up to 35% of cases. H. influenzae (nontypable strains) and M.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 136. Meningococcal Infections Definition Neisseria meningitidis is the etiologic agent of two life-threatening diseases: meningococcal meningitis and fulminant meningococcemia. More rarely, meningococci cause pneumonia, septic arthritis, pericarditis, urethritis, and conjunctivitis. Most cases are potentially preventable by vaccination. Etiologic Agent Meningococci are gram-negative aerobic diplococci. Unlike the other neisseriae, they have a polysaccharide capsule.

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  • Neisseria meningitidis is the etiologic agent of two life-threatening diseases: meningococcal meningitis and fulminant meningococcemia. More rarely, meningococci cause pneumonia, septic arthritis, pericarditis, urethritis, and conjunctivitis. Most cases are potentially preventable by vaccination. Etiologic Agent Meningococci are gram-negative aerobic diplococci. Unlike the other neisseriae, they have a polysaccharide capsule. They are transmitted among humans—their only known habitat—via respiratory secretions.

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  • Tuberculosis, one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans, is a major cause of death worldwide. This disease, which is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, usually affects the lungs, although other organs are involved in up to one-third of cases. If properly treated, tuberculosis caused by drug-susceptible strains is curable in virtually all cases. If untreated, the disease may be fatal within 5 years in 50–65% of cases.

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  • The endemic, or nonvenereal, treponematoses are bacterial infections caused by close relatives of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, the etiologic agent of venereal syphilis (Chap. 162). Yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis are distinguished from venereal syphilis by mode of transmission, age of acquisition, geographic distribution, and clinical features. These infections are limited to rural areas of developing nations and are seen in developed countries only in recent immigrants from endemic regions. ...

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  • The NS2B–NS3 protease complex is essential for the replication of dengue virus, which is the etiologic agent of dengue and hemorrhagic fevers, dis-eases that are a burden for the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The active form of the NS3 protease linked to the 40 residues of the NS2B cofactor shows highly flexible and disordered region(s)...

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  •  Less than 3 decades ago, Robin Warren and Barry Marshall definitively identified Helicobacter pylori by culturing an organism from gastric biopsy specimens that had been visualized for almost a century by pathologists (196). In 1994, H. pylori was recognized as a type I carcinogen, and now it is considered the most common etiologic agent of infection-related cancers, which represent 5.5% of the global cancer burden (239). In 2005, Marshall and Warren were awarded the Nobel Prize of Medicine for their seminal discovery of this bacterium and its role in peptic ulcer disease

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  • Brightly colored condoms, arranged in the shape of bicycles, eyeglasses, or flowers: part of an extensive campaign against the AIDS risk, these have been a common sight on billboards in Germany for several years now. An advertising spot presented on the Arte television channel (which defines itself as the cultural television channel of Europe) calls on viewers to “fight together.” The spots on German television (distributed by both private and public channels) are about “not giving AIDS a chance.

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