Etiology and pathogenesis

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  • Reiko Inagi reviewed very lucidly the role of endoplasmic reticulum in the stress of responses in glomeruli, while the pathogenic significance of dendritic cells in autoimmune glomerulonephritis is elaborated by Yahuan Lou. Finally, the relevance of urinary biomarkers in relation to pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis is put together in a concise chapter written by Sophie Ohlsson.

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  • While various glomerular disorders account for the most cases of end stage renal failure, the etio-pathogenesis of these conditions intrigued many investigators for decades. A clear knowledge of the etiology and pathogenesis is crucial for developing novel strategies to prevent and to treat these disorders. Notwithstanding the continuous emergence of new discoveries, we still have a long way to get any closer to a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of glomerular injury.

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  • The progression of disease in localized osteomyelitis is characterized by a cycle of microbial invasion, vascular disruption, necrosis and sequestration. The host inflammatory response, discussed in detail below, results in obstruction of small vessels due to coagulopathy and oedema. As a result of this, cortical bone undergoes necrosis and is detached from surrounding live bone, creating an area known as a sequestrum. This provides a fertile environment for further bacterial invasion and progression continues.

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  • As far as the relationship of generation of each of the five elements is concerned, it is composed of two aspects--promoting and being promoted. The element that promotes is called the mother, while the element that is promoted is called the child. Hence, the relation of promoting and being promoted among the five elements is also known as that of mother and child. Take fire for example, since fire produces earth, it is called the mother of earth; on the other hand it is produced by wood, so it is called the child of wood. Restriction connotes bringing under control or restraint.

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  • Cancers of the endometrium, ovary and cervix share certain characteristics. However, etio-pathogenesis of all the gynecological malignancies is yet to be explored. Even though the etiologic factors are generally environmental, the exact cause of each gynecological cancer is not known (Senate Community Affairs References Committee, Commonwealth of Australia, 2006). Worldwide, cancer incidence rates vary widely between different geographic regions and ethnic groups.

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  • Endometriosis is the extrauterine occurrence of endometrial glands and stroma, most often involving the ovaries or dependent visceral peritoneal surfaces. Although benign, endometriosis is progressive, tends to recur, may be locally invasive, may have widespread disseminated foci (rare), and may exist in pelvic lymph nodes (30%). The etiology is unknown, but several mechanisms may be important in pathogenesis. Endometriosis is a significant gynecological problem, occurring in 7%–10% of the general population and up to 50% of premenopausal women.

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  • This book will be of interest to anyone interested in the application of Tissue Engineering. It offers a wide range of topics, including the use of stem cells and adult stem cells, their applications and the development of a tailored biomaterial, highlighting the importance of cell-biomaterial interaction. It offers insights into a wide variety of cells and biomaterials, explaining the groundwork required to open the avenue to the next generation biotechnology, which is Tissue Engineering.

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  • The tendinous chords, as functional extensions of the papillary muscles, perform the dual function of maintaining valvular competence by preventing leaflet prolapse and maintaining ventricular geometry by providing cross-ventricular support. The chords originate from the apical portions of the papillary muscles or directly from the posterior ventricular wall. They insert either into the free edge of the leaflets or on their ventricular surface. Chords have been characterized a number of ways.

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  • The etiology of PV is unknown. Although nonrandom chromosome abnormalities such as 20q, trisomy 8, and especially 9p, have been documented in up to 30% of untreated PV patients, unlike CML no consistent cytogenetic abnormality has been associated with the disorder. However, a mutation in the autoinhibitory, pseudokinase domain of the tyrosine kinase JAK2—which replaces valine with phenylalanine (V617F), causing constitutive activation of the kinase— appears to have a central role in the pathogenesis of PV.

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  • Abstract Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vascular vitreoretinopathy that affects infants with short gestational age and low birth-weight. The condition is a multifactorial disease and is clinically similar to familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), which is a bilateral hereditary eye disorder affecting full-term infants. Both of them are characterized by the abnormal vessel growth in the vitreous that can lead to vitreoretinal traction, retinal detachment and other complications resulting in blindness.

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  • An increase in aortic aneurysm occurrence is registered, despite considerable advances in surgical interventions. Consequently, numerous researchers have been trying to improve the understanding the aortic aneurysm pathogenesis in order to facilitate an early diagnosis, to identify new therapeutic targets, and to develop complex therapies.

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  • Acute Sinusitis Just as the pathogenesis and microbial etiology of acute rhinosinusitis are similar to those of otitis media, so are the principles of diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis is often empirical, and the less rigorously it is made, the more irrelevant antibiotics are likely to be.

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  • There have been great strides in using positional cloning to successfully identify the underlying basis of many Mendelian disorders of children. The severity of even these disorders, however, is greatly affected by genetic modifiers and gene- environment interactions. The molecular pathogenesis of many more complex disorders remains unexplained due to the often complex genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions involved in their etiology. However, there is reason for optimism.

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