In the wake of the EU’s greatest enlargement, this book explores the
adaptation of the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe for membership
in the European Union. In response to the painful past, these new
constitutions were notably closed to the transfer of powers to international
organisations, and accorded a prominent status to sovereignty and independence.
A little more than a decade later, the process of amending these
provisions in view of the transfer of sovereign powers to a supranational
organisation has proved a sensitive and controversial exercise....
The enlargement of the European Community (EC) and later the European
Union (EU) was never particularly popular.2 Indeed, the first
attempt at widening the EU culminated in the Community’s “first real
crisis” when Charles de Gaulle, then-President of France, rejected the
British accession in a dramatic press conference at the E´ lyse´e Palace
(Nicholson and East 1987, 39). He claimed that Britain’s conditions
for joining the Union were unacceptable to France.
EU enlargement, the CAP reform, changing consumer demands and globalization have also
impacted negatively on the agricultural sector (Rudmann, 2008), with the scale of support
provided to farmers drastically reduced (Alsos, Carter, Ljunggren & Welter, 2011). A
gradual decline in income from traditional farming activities has forced many farming
businesses to diversify in order to remain viable. Diversification requires farmers to combine
other, typically non-agricultural activities with their core farm business.
After 1991, European governments grew accustomed to Russian acquiescence.
Moscow might have put up a struggle against European policies – from
humanitarian intervention in Kosovo, NATO and EU enlargement, to visa
arrangements for Kaliningrad and the Kyoto Protocol on climate change
– but the Kremlin’s bark always proved worse than its bite. The Russian
government, crippled by massive debt, ﬁnancial instability and the war
in Chechnya, caved in each time because of its reliance on Western help. ...
As four out of every five European citizens live in urban areas, their quality of life
and the quality of their environment depends upon how cities look and how they
function. Cities are also the places where business is done, investments are made
and jobs are created and so cities represent the place where the environmental, The
EU's Sustainable Development Strategy3 aims to "encourage local initiatives to
economic and social dimensions of sustainable development meet most strongly.
At the other end of the food chain agricultural practices are going to change.
The increased focus on environmental sustainability in society is reflected in
the rapid growth for organic agriculture, while the use of modern
biotechnology might be offering many new opportunities for agriculture in the
EU. The enlargement process and further reforms of the CAP could lead to a
drastically changed market and production situation.