Eu level

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  • Raw materials mark the beginning of a value-added chain. In times of increasing globalization their availability is a precondition for prosperity, productivity and development of a country’s economy. Raw materials have always been needed for many purposes. Global demand had its origin in the Bronze and Iron Ages and increased exponentially during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century. Worldwide demand for raw materials rapidly increased in the 20th Century, caused by the explosive growth of the world population and global economic productivity.

    pdf651p taurus23 25-09-2012 23 7   Download

  • European cooperation and integration has continued to progress forward over the past five decades, with an ever deepening impact on the member states. The first wave of research into these processes concerned European integration, the process of institution building and policy developments at the European Union (EU) level. The second wave, on Europeanization used integration as an explanatory factor in understanding domestic political change and continuity related to the EU.

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  • As well as pioneering a new, broader definition of environmental goods and services, this report has  expanded the scope of analysis to include activities within the broader environmental supply chain as  well as activities across the full environmental value chain ‐  including R&D, design and development,  installation,  manufacturing,  supply,  distribution,  retail,  maintenance,  operations,  consultancy  and  support services.

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  • On the global stage small businesses are represented in many different communities. At a UK and EU level small businesses are defined as having 10-50 employees and offer considerable scope for innovation and productivity. Additionally, the European Union Research and Advisory Board (EURAB, 2004) has provided a helpful typology in terms of the amount of R&D that is undertaken. Four basic categories provide insight into the level of use and the extent of R&D that is conducted.

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  • The impact assessment concludes that a 'strict liability' standard obliging depositaries to return instruments lost in custody irrespective of fault or negligence is both conducive to ensuring a high level of investor protection and to achieving a uniform standard across the EU.

    pdf36p khanhchilam 29-03-2013 16 6   Download

  • Energy efficiency is a key area for competitiveness. The Commission will reinforce its cooperation with Member States on the implementation of the energy efficiency directive, the energy labelling and ecodesign legislation. Implementing the strategy for Key Enabling Technologies will also be a key lever of competitiveness. The Commission will deepen its work to help SMEs facing the challenge of financing and implement the Action Plan for entrepreneurship.

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  • Europe's strength lies in the interconnection of our economies. The single market and the common currency have driven this forward, and the integrated economic policy making at the European level through the European semester is now drawing our economies together as never before. However, the crisis has shown that the single market for financial services can only deliver financial stability, economic growth and jobs if it is matched with a strong single regulatory and supervisory authority at EU level.

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  • With increasing global temperatures and the impact of climate change, it is accepted that there needs to be a reduction in global GHGEs which are contributing to climate change. As part of the UK Climate Change Act 2008 (www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2008/27) targets were set to cut the total annual GHGEs in the UK by at least 80% by 2050, with an interim target of a reduction of 34% by 2020 (based on the 1990 levels). The food system is a major contributor to GHGEs, with the food chain estimated to account for approximately a fifth of total GHGEs in the UK, the...

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  • The three typologies presented above are, as stated in section 1, intended as more appropriate generalisations to supersede the “stylised fallacies” which appear to play a continuing role in the design and priorities of rural development policy, both at the national and the EU level. This being the case it is appropriate to conclude this working paper with some tentative consideration of policy implications.

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  • The EU economy continues to deal with a difficult post-financial crisis correction, which bears heavily on its growth and employment performance. This forecast has been prepared against a mixed background of mostly disappointing hard data and survey indicators since our spring forecast, encouraging signs of progressing economic adjustment in Member States and important policy advances.

    pdf29p trinhcaidat 19-04-2013 31 3   Download

  • The major domestic support measure besides the milk quota system is public intervention (buying into storage) for butter and SMP. By administering the market price for butter and SMP through intervention purchases, the EU aims to put a floor on the producer milk price. If market demand is satisfied, minor surpluses or deficits will, in principle, show up through changes in the level of intervention stocks, but the market prices will not fall much below the respective intervention levels. ...

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  • Our empirical findings are robust to controlling for individual fixed-effects, expe- rience, year effects, team, home ballpark characteristics, and managerial quality. The inclusion of individual fixed-effects means that the results cannot be explained by assorta- tive matching between complementary or substitutable players at the team level, since the analysis is exploiting variation over time within a given player’s performance.

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  • In this survey, special attention is drawn on EU practice as the European trade bloc has established a separate pillar in its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) which exclusively deals with rural development and agri-environment. In the case of the EU, the paper looks at the lega framework on RD and agri-environment at the EU level, while further taking four national/regional programs as examples for how Member States have been implementing the EU framework legislation on RD.

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  • The economy of the United States is the world's largest national economy and the world's second largest overall economy, the GDP of the EU being approximately $2 trillion larger. Its nominal GDP was estimated to be $15.8 trillion in 2012 ,[1] approximately a quarter of nominal global GDP.[2] Its GDP at purchasing power parity is the largest in the world, approximatel

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  • This report presents the full findings from a new and unique survey designed and conducted according to rigorous standards by the EU Kids Online network. It was funded by the European Commissions’ Safer Internet Programme in order to strengthen the evidence base for policies regarding online safety.  A random stratified sample of 25,142 children aged 9-16 who use the internet, plus one of their parents, was interviewed during Spring/Summer 2010 in 25 European countries.

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  • Despite the above research results, nutritionists are hesitant to use high inclusion levels in the diet. The lower energy (less starch) and higher fiber content is a concern and high dietary levels may limit intake of high performance meat poultry. Variability in product nutrient content and quality is often cited. Indeed, variability exists in nutrient content and performance response. In the report presented by Cromwell and coworkers (1993), 9 different samples of DDGS were analyzed and tested in chick diets. A large range of lysine contents were noted (.43 to .89%).

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  • • Features 1 • Standard High reliability is realized! (1) Equipped with small class highest level of function/performance!! (1) FR-D700 specifications 5 Safety stop function (available soon) Provided by the user (present) The FR-D700 series is compliant to the EU Machinery Directive without the addition of previously required external devices. Operation of an external Emergency Stop device results in a highly reliable immediate shutoff of the D700's output to the motor. This safety stop function conforms to the following standards.

    pdf29p anh_chang_da_cam_90 09-12-2009 352 141   Download

  • The first experimental activities to support innovation in relation to regional and social policy, effectively pi oneering the development of the knowledge-based economy at regional level, were launched by the Commis sion in 1993-94. Today, nearly one in three regional authorities across the EU-15 have formulated a Regional Innovation Strategy or a Regional Innovation Society Initiative, aimed at developing effective innovation sys tems and spreading Information & Communication Technologies related know-how at regional level.

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  • Patterns of particle emission are different from those of the other pollutants included in the first phase of the EU Framework Directive because of their extreme diversity of origin and source, both primary and secondary, natural and anthropogenic, and there are significant differences in levels between Member States and regions within states. The limited amount of reliable PM10 data makes it difficult to establish a comprehensive overview of PM10 concentrations and trends in Member States.

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  • There were around 20 million enterprises in the non-financial business economy across the EU-27 in 2005; of these enterprises 99.8% were SMEs, the majority of which were micro enterprises. It is recognised that an SME-friendly business environment (e.g. in the Small Business Act), both at Community level and in the Member States, is crucial for growth and jobs in Europe. In some key industries, such as textiles, wood products, metal products, publishing, construction and furniture-making, they account for more than 70% of all jobs.

    pdf33p bin_pham 06-02-2013 19 5   Download

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