In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What features of cells make them the fundamental unit of life? what are the characteristics of prokaryotic cells? What are the characteristics of eukaryotic cells? What are the roles of extracellular structures? How did eukaryotic cells originate?
In this chapter, we will address the following questions: How do microbial eukaryotes affect the world around them? How did the eukaryotic cell arise? How did the microbial eukaryotes diversify? How do microbial eukaryotes reproduce? What are the major groups of eukaryotes?
Th ere is something about being human that instills in us a sense of wonder.
When we stop to think about it, the very idea of life seems such a mystery.
Where did we come from? How did life begin? When we look at the
sky, we wonder about the vastness of the universe and whether other life
may exist there. If we look through a microscope at a drop of pond water,
we are amazed at the variety of tiny creatures we see.
Since cells form the very basis of life, it is only natural that our sense
of wonder extends to the cell. Where did...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Comment on and reply to "Analysis of variation of amplitudes in cell cycle gene expression" by Liu, Gaido and Wolfinger: On the analysis of gene expression during the normal, eukaryotic, cell cycle
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a critical role as a compartment for
protein folding in eukaryotic cells. Defects in protein folding contribute to
a growing list of diseases, and advances in our understanding of the molec-ular details of protein folding are helping to provide more efficient ways of
producing recombinant proteins for industrial and medicinal use.
Chapter 4 - Cell structure and function. After studying this chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following outcomes: Cite the three tenets of the cell theory; explain why cells are so small; describe the structure of the prokaryotic cell in terms of the cell envelope, cytoplasm, and appendages; give a function for each structure;...
(BQ) Part 1 book "Microbiology demystified" presents the following contents: The world of the microorganism, the chemical elements of microorganisms, observing microorganisms, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, the chemical metabolism, microbial growth and controlling microbial growth, microbial genetics, recombinant DNA technology.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Textbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations" presents the following contents: Eukaryotic cell structure, composition and structure, structure—function relationships in protein families, classification, kinetics and control, structure and membrane transport, bioenergetics and oxidative metabolism, major metabolic pathways and their control.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Prescott's microbiology" presentation of content: The evolution of microorganisms and microbiology, microscopy, bacterial cell structure, eukaryotic cell structure, viruses and other acellular infectious agents, microbial growth, antimicrobial chemotherapy, antimicrobial chemotherapy,... and other contents.
Genetic information is physically carried on large DNA strings that are organized into
chromosomes. Each species is characterized by a chromosome set that carry the
information necessary and sufficient for its development and survival. Eukaryotic
organisms are mostly diploid, containing two sets of chromosomes with each pair
carrying nearly identical genetic information. Occasionally, exceptions to this rule are
found, such as haploid yeast (with only one set of chromosomes) or polyploid ferns
and frogs (with multiple sets).
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only cellular
protein that contains the unusual amino acid hypusine [N
-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. Vertebrates carry two genes that encode two eIF5A
isoforms, eIF5A-1 and eIF5A-2, which, in humans, are 84% identical.
eIF5A-1 mRNA (1.3 kb) and protein (18 kDa) are constitutively expressed
in human cells. In contrast, expression of eIF5A-2 mRNA (0.7–5.6 kb) and
eIF5A-2 protein (20 kDa) varies widely.
The virus protein linked to the genome (VPg) of plant potyviruses is a
25-kDa protein covalently attached to the genomic RNA 5¢ end. It was
previously reported that VPg binds specifically to eIF4E, the mRNAcap-binding protein of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex. We per-formed a spectroscopic study of the interactions between lettuce eIF4E and
VPg from lettuce mosaic virus (LMV).
Cell navigation is the process whereby cells or cytoplasmic extensions are
guided from one point to another in multicellular organisms or, in the case
of unicellular eukaryotic organisms, in the environment. Recent work has
demonstrated that membrane trafficking plays an important role in this
Termination of translation in eukaryotes is triggered by two polypeptide
chain release factors, eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor
(eRF1) and eukaryotic class 2 polypeptide chain release factor 3. eRF1 is a
three-domain protein that interacts with eukaryotic class 2 polypeptide
chain release factor 3 via its C-terminal domain (C-domain).
Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids mainly present at the outer leaflet of
the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, where they participate in recogni-tion and signalling activities. The synthesis of gangliosides is carried out in
the lumen of the Golgi apparatus by a complex system of glycosyltrans-ferases.
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylates
proteins such as eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1)
and the S6 kinases. These substrates contain short sequences, termed TOR
signalling (TOS) motifs, which interact with the mTORC1 component rap-tor.
The methionine salvage pathway is universally used to regenerate methio-nine from 5¢-methylthioadenosine, a byproduct of certain reactions involv-ing S-adenosylmethionine. We identified and verified the genes encoding
the enzymes of all steps in this cycle in a commonly used eukaryotic model
system: the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated in response to var-ious extracellular signals in eukaryotic cells and play a critical role in the
cellular responses to these signals. The four mammalian isoforms (p38a,
p38b, p38c, and p38d) are coexpressed and coactivated in the same cells.
The exact role of each p38 isoform has not been entirely identified, in part
due to the inability to activate each member individually.