Eukaryotic genomes

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  • In this chapter, we will address the following questions: What are the characteristics of the eukaryotic genome? What are the characteristics of eukaryotic genes? How are eukaryotic gene transcripts processed? How is eukaryotic gene transcription regulated? How is eukaryotic gene expression regulated after transcription? How is gene expression controlled during and after translation?

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  • This book is an introduction to the exciting new field of ecological genomics, for use in MSc courses and by those beginning their PhD studies. When we became involved in a national research programme on ecological genomics, or ecogenomics as it became known, we realized that information on this newly emerging subject needed to be brought together. In order to start up a research programme in such a new discipline, not only the students, but also we as teachers, had to get to grips with the subject.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Strong functional patterns in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes revealed by the reconstruction of ancestral protein domain repertoires...

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  • Thư viện genomic DNA là một tập hợp các đoạn DNA cùng đại diện cho một genome nguyên vẹn (hoặc gần nguyên vẹn) của cá thể mà DNA được bắt nguồn từ đó. Các đoạn này nằm trong các vector tự sao chép cho phép chúng được duy trì và sinh sản cùng với tế bào của cơ thể vi sinh vật, như vi khuẩn Escherichia coli hoặc nấm men Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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  • Bất kỳ gene mã hóa protein nào trong tế bào eukaryote đều bắt đầu phiên mã của nó bằng cách lắp ghép phức hệ tiền khởi động RNA polymerase II (PIC - preinitiation complex ) vào promoter. Các promoter, cùng với enhancer, silencer và insulator tạo thành tổ hợp mã đặc hiệu trong hầu hết các mô hình biểu hiện gene.

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  • Homologous recombination (HR) serves to eliminate deleterious lesions, such as double-stranded breaks and interstrand crosslinks, from chromosomes. HR is also critical for the preservation of replication forks, for telomere maintenance, and chromosome segregation in meiosis I. As such, HR is indispensable for the maintenance of genome integrity and the avoidance of cancers in humans. The HR reaction is mediated by a conserved class of enzymes termed recombinases.

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  • So sánh thành phần và chức năng genetrong số các bộ gene plastid. Sau khi có được bản đồ vật lý và di truyền bộ gene plastid E. huxleyi, các nhà nghiên cứu đã so sánh nó với các bộ gene plastid của các dòng eukaryote quang hợp. Thành phần gene của dòng tảo sơ cấp (glaucophyte, tảo đỏ và tảo xanh) cùng với dòng tảo chứa chlc(heterokont, cryptophytes và haptophytes)

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  • Quang hợp giải phóng oxy đã xuất hiện đầu tiên ở cyanobacteria. Sau đó, trong quá trình tiến hóa, vài dòng eukaryote không quang hợp không có quan hệ gần đã thu thập được khả năng này bằng việc "bắt cóc" sinh vật quang hợp và giữ nó như là một thể cộng sinh bền.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Genetics from genes to genomes" presents the following contents: How genes travel on chromosomes, how genes are regulated, beyond the individual gene and genome. Invite you to consult.

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  • Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications, control eukaryotic development beyond DNA-stored information. Intrigu-ingly, there is an under-representation of repressive marks in quies-cent (resting) cells, stem cells and regenerating cells, but a selective accumulation of aberrant histone lysine methylation profiles in aging, ‘‘stressed’’ and tumor cells, particularly for the H3K9, H3K27 and H4K20 methyl marks.

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  • Chapter 12 - The Eukaryotic chromosome. This chapter describes the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes and how that structure affects function. The very long, linear DNA molecules are compacted with proteins in the chromosomes to fit into the nucleus. Several structures are essential for duplication, segregation, and stability.

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  • Chapter 16 - Gene regulation in eukaryotes. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Overview of eukaryotic gene regulation, control of transcription initiation, chromatin structure and epigenetic effects, regulation after transcription, a comprehensive example: sex determination in Drosophila.

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  • Genome walking is a molecular procedure for the direct identification of nucleotide sequences from purified genomes. The only requirement is the availability of a known nucleotide sequence from which to start.

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  • Completed eukaryotic genomes were screened for medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (MDR). In the human genome, 23 MDR forms were found, a number that prob-ably will increase, because the genome is not yet fully inter-preted. Partial sequences already indicate that at least three furthermembers exist.WithintheMDRsuperfamily, at least eight families were distinguished.

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  • The virus protein linked to the genome (VPg) of plant potyviruses is a 25-kDa protein covalently attached to the genomic RNA 5¢ end. It was previously reported that VPg binds specifically to eIF4E, the mRNAcap-binding protein of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex. We per-formed a spectroscopic study of the interactions between lettuce eIF4E and VPg from lettuce mosaic virus (LMV).

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  • Chapter 8 includes contents: The genetic code, transcription: from DNA to RNA, translation: from mRNA to protein, differences in gene expression between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, a comprehensive example: computerized analysis of gene expression in C. elegans, The effect of mutations on gene expression and gene function.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Genome-wide analysis of eukaryote thaumatinlike proteins (TLPs) with an emphasis on poplar

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Eukaryotic large nucleo-cytoplasmic DNA viruses: Clusters of orthologous genes and reconstruction of viral genome evolution

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  • Population geneticists study the genetic composition and variability of natural populations as well as the theories that explain this variability in terms of natural selection, mutation, recombination, genetic drift and gene flow. Population genetics was first developed among eukaryotes in an attempt to reconcile Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection and Mendelian genetics. When Darwin postulated that natural selection is the main force of evolutionary change, a great controversy was created.

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  • To identify artificial DNA segments that can stably express transgenes in the genome of host cells, we built a series of curved DNA segments that mimic a left-handed superhelical structure. Curved DNA segments of 288 bp (T32) and 180 bp (T20) were able to activate transcription from the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) promoter by approximately 150-fold and 70-fold, respectively, compared to a control in a transient transfection assay in COS-7 cells.

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