European war

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  • Sol Plaatje began work on `Native Life in South Africa' in 1914, while on his way to Britain to plead with the Imperial Government against the Natives' Land Act of 1913, as part of a deputation of the South African Native National Congress. The book was intended as a means of reaching the British public with the deputation's message. The method seemed sound enough — it was quite similar in form to the successful deputation which had pleaded to keep Bechuanaland (modern Botswana) under direct Imperial control in 1895. But circumstances were different in 1914 — South Africa had...

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  • Immediately on receiving official notification of the rupture of diplomatic relations between Austria and Servia, the Turkish Grand Vizier hastened to inform the Diplomatic Corps in Constantinople that Turkey would remain neutral in the conflict.

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  • Charles Callan Tansill, one of the foremost American diplomatic historians of the twentieth century, argues that FDR wished to involve the United States in the European War that began in September 1939. When he proved unable to do so directly, he determined to provoke Japan into an attack on American territory. Doing so would involve Japan’s Axis allies in war also, and we would thus enter the war through the “back door”. The strategy succeeded, and Tansill maintains that Roosevelt in accord with it welcomed Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor.

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  • From the point of view of literature, the Great War of to-day has brought us into a new and closer sympathy with the England of the past. Dr. Woods and Mr. Baltzly in their recent careful study of European Warfare, _Is War Diminishing?_ come to the conclusion that England during the period of her great activity in the world has been "fighting about half the time." We had begun to look on war as belonging to the past and insensibly fallen into the view of Buckle that in England "a love of war is, as a national taste, utterly extinct." Now we have awakened to...

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  • The reader must remember that these articles were written before the war began. They are in a sense prophetic and show a remarkable understanding of the conditions which brought about the present great war in Europe. The writer has made European history a life study and his training in the English consular service placed him in a position to secure the facts upon which he bases his arguments. Sir Roger Casement was born in Ireland in September, 1864.

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  • From the close of World War II until sometime in the middle of the 1960s two grand ideals ruled the architectural profession. One was a political faith in the vision of modernity – the meliorist belief that by affecting social change and imposing a universal environmental order architects could improve the human lot and repair a globe wrought by physical and moral devastation. The second was the belief that the most efficient way to achieve this amelioration was through technology and its application.

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  • In the Christian tradition, the doctrine of ‘just war’ has evolved throughout the last 1,700 years, originating with St. Augustine and later significantly shaped by St Thomas Aquinas, both of whom developed ideas of the Greek philosopher Aristotle and the Roman philosopher Cicero. 15 Saint Augustine (354-430) served as Bishop of Hippo for 34 years. His idea of just war has two foundations. The first, owing much to the Eastern religious traditions, is that in all things a person should not act out of selfish considerations.

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  • When his two older brothers, Fred and Leopold, enlisted in the army during the Boer War (1899-1902), the thrill-packed letters home were too much to resist, and one night fourteen-year-old Victor ran away from home and joined the Life Guards. He never fought, however, as his father promptly secured his release from military service. While in the Guards, Victor first learned to use his fists to protect himself, developing an interest in boxing, and becoming the regimental champion.

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  • Project management is in large part about being responsible. Today's high school and college programs rarely force young people to exert their discipline. Most people say it is impossible for young adults to manage themselves. I do not agree. Consider World War II. People between the ages of 17 and 22 formed the bulk of the force that fought in the war. They were responsible for flying fighter planes, bombers, driving tanks, and steering ships. These are huge responsibilities. If they can do this so can you.

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  • Counterfeiting also has a history of being employed as a political tool, particularly during times of war when it has been used to devalue an enemy’s currency by flooding a country with fake coinage or notes. For example, the British government sought to undermine the Continental Congress during the War of American Independence by counterfeiting the dollar during 1777 and 1778.

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  • cores of constitutions drawn up since the end of World War II have proclaimed religious freedom as one of the most fundamental rights known to humanity. Simi- larly, international covenants of human rights have exalted the right to religious liberty as a privilege that is so foundational and precious that it should be guaranteed by in- ternational law.

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  • This book examines the relationship between imperialism and international law. It argues that colonial confrontation was central to theformation of international law and, in particular, its founding concept, sovereignty. Traditional histories of the discipline present colonialism and non-European peoples as peripheral concerns. By contrast, Anghie argues that international law has always been animated by the ‘civilizing mission’ -- the project of governing non-European peoples.

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  • This morning I awoke, and behold the Norman was lying alongside a wharf at Capetown. I had expected it, and yet it was a shock. In this breathless age ten days out of sight of land is enough to make you a merman: I looked with pleased curiosity at the grass and the horses. After the surprise of being ashore again, the first thing to notice was the air. It was as clear--but there is nothing else in existence clear enough with which to compare it. You felt that all your life hitherto you had been breathing mud and looking out on the world through...

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  • Struggles between Catholicism and Protestantism were at the root of a century of war and upheaval in Europe. Nations responded to the instability by giving absolute power to their monarchs. Art, literature, and political thought reflected the anxiety and uncertainty of the era.

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  • For a long period of time the Nordic countries saw themselves or were viewed upon as something different from Europe. The Nordic institutions and the long tradition of Nordic co-operation in different forms could also be seen as a hallmark of the joint actions of “non-European Nordic countries”. In a historic perspective, the states have experienced war between and domination of each other. However, since almost 200 years the Nordic countries have been a peaceful area in that respect, in spite of great political-institutional changes.

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  • Following World War II, the high quality, technologically advanced products of the United States dominated world markets. With the oil shock of the 1970s, however, many of the economic advantages associated with cheap petroleum were lost and the recovered economies of Europe and Asia emerged as strong competitors in many product areas. The innovative technologies of the US could no longer insulate industries from the customer oriented approaches of European and Asian producers.

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  • In the aftermath of World War II, the United States enjoyed an easy preeminence in the world economy. Neither the US education system, nor the US tax system, nor American savings habits were criticized on grounds of international competitiveness. During the 1980s, however, Americans took notice of their faults as Japan and the European Union both seemed destined to challenge US preeminence. For different reasons neither Japan nor the European Union prospered during the 1990s but the US economy thrived on a technology boom.

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  • Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights states: 'No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment' and is one of its most important provisions. This is borne out by the fact that-along with Articles 2, 4(1) and 4(7)-it is a rule from which no derogation is allowed, not even in times of war or other public emergencies threatening the existence of a Contracting State (see Article 15(2)). By the same token, it is also one of the most difficult norms of the Convention to...

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  • During the interval in which time series overlap, the British and French negative length was growing at roughly the same rates as the US one, until 1914. That war year constitutes a great discontinuity, and from then on European growth rates are different and far lower than US ones. At the same time, the average film length increased considerably, from eighty feet in 1897 to seven hundred feet in 1910 to three thousand feet in 1920. As a result, the total released length, which is the best indicator of production, increases more rapidly than the number released, in...

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  • After 1991, European governments grew accustomed to Russian acquiescence. Moscow might have put up a struggle against European policies – from humanitarian intervention in Kosovo, NATO and EU enlargement, to visa arrangements for Kaliningrad and the Kyoto Protocol on climate change – but the Kremlin’s bark always proved worse than its bite. The Russian government, crippled by massive debt, financial instability and the war in Chechnya, caved in each time because of its reliance on Western help. ...

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