The here presented book covers different areas of clinical and scientific interest, reaching from donor evaluation to newest methods in immunological diagnostics. But also aspects of daily care of transplant recipients can be found in the carefully selected chapters. Everything driven by the aim to improve the care for all of our transplanted patients.
In Vietnam, project cycle management (PCM) of road investment projects consists of investment preparation, implementation, construction, and operation processes. The postevaluation of projects during operation has not yet been considered through PCM in a systematic and effective manner. This paper discussed project management issues of road infrastructure projects in Vietnam. Then the paper introduced the post-evaluation process for integrating into Vietnam’s PCM using the PCM methodology developed by Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID).
Many machine translation (MT) evaluation metrics have been shown to correlate better with human judgment than BLEU. In principle, tuning on these metrics should yield better systems than tuning on BLEU. However, due to issues such as speed, requirements for linguistic resources, and optimization difficulty, they have not been widely adopted for tuning.
We illustrate and explain problems of n-grams-based machine translation (MT) metrics (e.g. BLEU) when applied to morphologically rich languages such as Czech. A novel metric SemPOS based on the deep-syntactic representation of the sentence tackles the issue and retains the performance for translation to English as well.
This paper describes the work achieved in the firsthalf of a 4-year cooperative research project ( A R C A D E ) , financed by A U P E L F - U R E F . The project is devoted to the evaluation of parallel text alignment techniques. In its firstperiod ARCADE ran a competition between six systems on a sentence-to-sentence alignment task which yielded two main types of results. First, a large reference bilingual corpus comprising of texts of different genres was created, each presenting various degrees of difficultywith respect to the alignment task. ...
This paper addresses the issue of POS tagger evaluation. Such evaluation is usually performed by comparing the tagger output with a reference test corpus, which is assumed to be error-free. Currently used corpora contain noise which causes the obtained performance to be a distortion of the real value. We analyze to what extent this distortion may invalidate the comparison between taggers or the measure of the improvement given by a new system. The main conclusion is that a more rigorous testing experimentation setting/designing is needed to reliably evaluate and compare tagger accuracies.
In this paper, I discuss issues pertinent to the design of a task-based evaluation methodology for a spoken machine translation (MT) system processing human to human communication rather than human to machine communication. I claim that system mediated human to human communication requires new evaluation criteria and metrics based on goal complexity and the speaker's prioritization of goals. ystem
Chapter 15 explain the cost of capital and taxation issues in project evaluation. This chapter include objectives: Understand the concept of the cost of capital, understand the effect of risk on the cost of capital, understand how the cost of capital can be measured under the imputation tax system, understand why the cost of capital for a company is expressed as a weighted average of the costs of all of the company’s sources of capital,...
Obtaining large volumes of inference knowledge, such as entailment rules, has become a major factor in achieving robust semantic processing. While there has been substantial research on learning algorithms for such knowledge, their evaluation methodology has been problematic, hindering further research. We propose a novel evaluation methodology for entailment rules which explicitly addresses their semantic properties and yields satisfactory human agreement levels. The methodology is used to compare two state of the art learning algorithms, exposing critical issues for future progress. ...
Current alternatives for language modeling are statistical techniques based on large amounts of training data, and hand-crafted context-free or ﬁnite-state grammars that are difﬁcult to build and maintain. One way to address the problems of the grammar-based approach is to compile recognition grammars from grammars written in a more expressive formalism. While theoretically straight-forward, the compilation process can exceed memory and time bounds, and might not always result in accurate and efﬁcient speech recognition.
In previous papers we presented methods for retrieving collocations from large samples of texts. We described a tool, X t r a c t , that implements these methods and able to retrieve a wide range of collocations in a two stage process. These methods a.s well as other related methods however have some limitations. Mainly, the produced collocations do not include any kind of functional information and many of them are invalid. In this paper we introduce methods that address these issues. These methods are implemented in an added third stage to X t r a c t...
In this chapter, you will learn: Name the principal trading partners of the United States and the goods that are most often traded, illustrate how international trade benefits both trading partners, define the principles of absolute and comparative advantage and utilize these definitions to prove the benefits from trade, compare and evaluate the reasons for limiting trade and illustrate the mechanisms for doing so.
When you finish this chapter, you should: Define a cartel, model how a cartel can make their members large sums of money, show why cartels are not typically stable and describe the conditions necessary for creating cartel stability, evaluate whether OPEC qualifies as a cartel, summarize the history of inflation-adjusted oil and gasoline prices.
The Panel for the Workshop on the State Children’s Health Insurance
Program wishes to thank the many people who contributed to the development
of the workshop and to the preparation of this report.
The workshop was sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary
for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) in the U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services. Caroline Taplin, of that agency, served as project officer
for the workshop.
This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 31 December 2008. IFRS 6 Exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources was issued by the International Accounting Standards Board in December 2004.
Financing new equipment -- from computers to phone systems to capital equipment and other gear you need to run your company -- is a major issue for many small business owners. Leasing, instead of purchasing, can be a cost-effective option, particularly if you don't have the cash on hand, but need the equipment.
In fact, you might want to consider leasing even if you do have the cash to invest. By leasing, you might find that you can regulate your cash flow more effectively, because you have predictable, regular monthly installments as opposed to a single lump sum payment. Plus, leasing......
This book provides an authoritative outline of current mass appraisal
techniques being used internationally and in-depth research into state-ofthe-
art developments that are likely to permeate the industry over the
The Texas Higher Education Assessment (THEA) was designed to ensure that students in Texas obtain
the reading, math, and writing skills necessary to take on college-level work. The test portion of the
program is administered and developed by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB)
and National Evaluation Systems, Inc. (NES). It was created to help educators identify students who may need
remedial help before pursuing higher-education courses.
• National Advertising Review Council (NARC)
. Responsible for receiving or initiating, evaluating,
investing, analyzing and holding initial negotiations
with an advertiser on complaints or questions from
any source involving truth or accuracy of national
• NARC Organizational Units. The Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU)
. National Advertising Review Board (NARB)
. Council of Better Business Bureau’s National
Advertising Division (NAD)