Despite the rising interest in developing grammatical error detection systems for non-native speakers of English, progress in the ﬁeld has been hampered by a lack of informative metrics and an inability to directly compare the performance of systems developed by different researchers. In this paper we address these problems by presenting two evaluation methodologies, both based on a novel use of crowdsourcing.
In this paper, I discuss issues pertinent to the design of a task-based evaluation methodology for a spoken machine translation (MT) system processing human to human communication rather than human to machine communication. I claim that system mediated human to human communication requires new evaluation criteria and metrics based on goal complexity and the speaker's prioritization of goals. ystem
The GIVE Challenge is a recent shared task in which NLG systems are evaluated over the Internet. In this paper, we validate this novel NLG evaluation methodology by comparing the Internet-based results with results we collected in a lab experiment. We ﬁnd that the results delivered by both methods are consistent, but the Internetbased approach offers the statistical power necessary for more ﬁne-grained evaluations and is cheaper to carry out.
Obtaining large volumes of inference knowledge, such as entailment rules, has become a major factor in achieving robust semantic processing. While there has been substantial research on learning algorithms for such knowledge, their evaluation methodology has been problematic, hindering further research. We propose a novel evaluation methodology for entailment rules which explicitly addresses their semantic properties and yields satisfactory human agreement levels. The methodology is used to compare two state of the art learning algorithms, exposing critical issues for future progress. ...
many groups and individuals have been motivated to consider the potential for producing ethanol. Across the
country, farmer cooperatives, rural development coalitions, bio-energy advocates and others have gathered to
explore the process and prospects for developing ethanol production facilities. In many cases these efforts have
resulted in the successful development of ethanol plants.
Partial evaluation technology continues to grow and mature. ACM SIGPLANsponsored
conferences and workshops have provided a forum for researchers to
share current results and directions of work. Partial evaluation techniques are
being used in commercially available compilers (for example the Chez Scheme
system). They are also being used in industrial scheduling systems (see Augustsson's
article in this volume), they have been incorporated into popular
commercial products (see Singh's article in this volume), and they are the basis
of methodologies for implementing domain-specific languages....
In Vietnam, project cycle management (PCM) of road investment projects consists of investment preparation, implementation, construction, and operation processes. The postevaluation of projects during operation has not yet been considered through PCM in a systematic and effective manner. This paper discussed project management issues of road infrastructure projects in Vietnam. Then the paper introduced the post-evaluation process for integrating into Vietnam’s PCM using the PCM methodology developed by Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID).
How might one evaluate the In order to take steps towards establishing a methodology for evaluating Natural Language systems, we relative contributions of each of these factors or comconducted a case study. We attempt to evaluate two pare two approaches to the same problem? different approaches to anaphoric processing in disIn order to take steps towards establishing a course by comparing the accuracy and coverage of methodology for doing this type of comparison, we two published algorithms for finding the co-specifiers conducted a case study. ...
It is not always clear how the differences in intrinsic evaluation metrics for a parser or classiﬁer will affect the performance of the system that uses it. We investigate the relationship between the intrinsic evaluation scores of an interpretation component in a tutorial dialogue system and the learning outcomes in an experiment with human users. Following the PARADISE methodology, we use multiple linear regression to build predictive models of learning gain, an important objective outcome metric in tutorial dialogue.
In recent years there has been a growing interest in crowdsourcing methodologies to be used in experimental research for NLP tasks. In particular, evaluation of systems and theories about persuasion is difﬁcult to accommodate within existing frameworks.
The idea of “nugget pyramids” has recently been introduced as a reﬁnement to the nugget-based methodology used to evaluate answers to complex questions in the TREC QA tracks. This paper examines data from the 2006 evaluation, the ﬁrst large-scale deployment of the nugget pyramids scheme. We show that this method of combining judgments of nugget importance from multiple assessors increases the stability and discriminative power of the evaluation while introducing only a small additional burden in terms of manual assessment. ...
In this paper we present a methodology for extracting subcategorisation frames based on an automatic LFG f-structure annotation algorithm for the Penn-II Treebank. We extract abstract syntactic function-based subcategorisation frames (LFG semantic forms), traditional CFG categorybased subcategorisation frames as well as mixed function/category-based frames, with or without preposition information for obliques and particle information for particle verbs.
Lexical-semantic resources are used extensively for applied semantic inference, yet a clear quantitative picture of their current utility and limitations is largely missing. We propose system- and application-independent evaluation and analysis methodologies for resources’ performance, and systematically apply them to seven prominent resources. Our ﬁndings identify the currently limited recall of available resources, and indicate the potential to improve performance by examining non-standard relation types and by distilling the output of distributional methods. ...
Interpreting, like playing chess, is a game of problem solving, evaluation, critical
thinking, intuition and forecasting. Every game is different and each game is a challenge,
which requires interpreters, to unceasingly develop knowledge and experience. It is
disciplined study and repeated practice of many techniques and skills that bring victory to
the interpreter. Apart from basic requirements of language mastery and culture sensitivity,
there are quite a few skills that need to be acquired for successful interpreting. One of
them is note-taking skill....
Designing for the disabled is about making
buildings accessible to and usable by people
with disabilities. Universal design is about
making buildings safe and convenient for all
their users, including people with disabilities.
A theme of this book is the similarities and
differences of the two, between their correspondences
and affinities on the one hand, and
their discordancies and diverse methodologies
on the other.
This book provides an authoritative outline of current mass appraisal
techniques being used internationally and in-depth research into state-ofthe-
art developments that are likely to permeate the industry over the
Forensic Engineering Investigation is a compendium of the investigative methodologies used by engineers and scientific investigators to evaluate some of the more common types of failures and catastrophic events. In essence, the book provides analyses and methods for determining how an entity was damaged and when that damage may have legal consequences. The material covers 21 common types of failures, catastrophic events, and losses that forensic engineers routinely assess.
Advances in patient management have often been closely linked to the development of
critical quantitative analysis methods. Flow cytometry is such an important
methodology. It can be applied to individual cells or organelles allowing investigators
interested in obtaining information about the functional properties of cells to assess
the differences among cells in a heterogeneous cell preparation or between cells from
Many experts from the field of IT Service Management have assisted in putting
together this first edition of The Guide to IT Service Management Volume I. Without
these authors, who have done a lot of work to formulate their knowledge and insights
and put them down on paper, a book like this would not be possible. I owe these
authors my gratitude. The names of the authors are mentioned in their respective contributions,
but you can be assured that many more were involved in the writing and
evaluating of the final texts....
The project was characterised by
high uncertainty, since neither cost nor time could be accurately estimated. Times of
completion were based on probabilities: optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely. This
led to what has come to be known as the programme evaluation review technique
(PERT). Later a new methodology known as project planning and scheduling (PPS)
was introduced in the private sector. PPS required realistic estimates of cost and
time, and was considered more definitive than PERT.