The toxicological monographs in this volume summarize the safety data on a number of food additives: asparaginase from Aspergillus nigerexpressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40 “65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane and steviol glycosides. A monograph on the assessment of dietary exposure to sulfites is also included. Monographs on 10 groups of related flavoring agents evaluated by the Procedure for the Safety Evaluation of Flavouring Agents are also included....
In recent years, completion of the sequencing of the human genome as well as the
genomes of dozens of other organisms and subsequent development of tools for comprehensive
analysis of other cellular constituents have revolutionized biology. These new
technologies, referred to broadly as “genomics,” have integrated biologic sciences with
information sciences and engineering.
The guidelines are targeted at public health professionals involved in prevent-
ing health risks of environmental exposures as well as specialists and authorities
involved in the design and use of buildings, indoor materials and products. The
guidelines are based on the accumulated scientific knowledge available at the
time of their development. They have the character of recommendations. Nev-
ertheless, countries may wish to use the guidelines as a scientific basis for legally
Socioeconomic status, poverty, and race have been found
to be correlated with ACSC rates [8-10]. Several studies
have examined the associations between ACSCs and
demographics using small areas of analysis (typically ZIP
code) and have found that ACSCs are higher in lowincome
areas and areas with higher concentrations of
racial and ethnic minorities [11,12]. The elderly population
has not been studied much in this context, because
they are thought to be relatively well-insured.
an effort to ensure the wise use of taxpayers’ money, the federal government
has undertaken major initiatives to evaluate the performance and results
of federally funded programs, including research and development (R&D) programs.
The initiatives include the Government Performance and Results Act of
1993 and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Program Assessment
Rating Tool (PART), developed in 2002. The latter was designed in the context
of “performance budgeting” and “performance measurement” and focused on
evaluating the efficiency of programs.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has
requested that the National Academies, through the National Research
Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM), conduct a series of
reviews of its research portfolio. The charge is discussed in detail in a subsequent
section, but in general it is to evaluate the relevance and impact of a NIOSH research
program and to provide recommendations for future research. This report
contains a review and evaluation of the NIOSH Traumatic Injury (TI) Research
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Analysis and evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure as a risk factor for chronic cough...
This book is intended as a guide to the selection or design of the
principal kinds of chemical process equipment by engineers in
school and industry. The level of treatment assumes an elementary
knowledge of unit operations and transport phenomena. Access to
the many design and reference books listed in Chapter 1 is desirable.
For coherence, brief reviews of pertinent theory are provided.
Emphasis is placed on shortcuts, rules of thumb, and data for
design by analogy, often as primary design processes but also for
quick evaluations of detailed work....
Since all of these flavors are present in beer, it is important that beer judges completely coat the inside
of their mouths with beer when evaluating it and that the beer be swallowed. As is true for the scent
receptors in the nose, different people have different densities of taste buds and, thus, have different
sensitivities to various flavors. Also, taste buds can be damaged (e.g., being burnt by hot food or
through exposure to irritants like spicy foods, smoking, or other chemicals), so a judge’s sensitivity may
be diminished until tastebuds can regenerate (about 10 days).
The present book is a collection of selected original research articles and reviews providing adequate and up-to-date information related to pesticides control, assessment, and toxicity. The first section covers a large spectrum of issues associated with the ecological, molecular, and biotechnological approaches to the understanding of the biological control, the mechanism of the biocontrol agents action, and the related effects.
Low-affinity hemoglobins should be considered in patients with cyanosis or a low hematocrit with no other reason apparent after thorough evaluation. The P 50 test confirms the diagnosis. Counseling and reassurance are the interventions of choice.
Methemoglobin should be suspected in patients with hypoxic symptoms who appear cyanotic but have a Pa O2 sufficiently high that hemoglobin should be fully saturated with oxygen.
Panelists from the Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction
reviewed the literature for potential toxicities of HU. They concluded that HU does not
cause a growth delay in children 5-15 years old . There were no data on the effects on
subsequent generations following exposure of developing germ cells to HU in utero.
Some evidence supported impaired spermatogenesis with use of HU. Although we
identified six patients taking HU who developed leukemia, the evidence did not support
Economics: Evaluation of the traffic-related health impacts and their monetarisation: Using
epidemiological data regarding the relation between air pollution and morbidity and premature
mortality, the number of cases of morbidity and/or premature mortality attributed to air pollution
is determined for each of the health outcomes separately, using specific exposure-response
functions. The same operations are carried out for the theoretical situation in which there is no
road traffic-related air pollution.
Workshops were conducted as a contribution to the
Partnership for Clean Indoor Air, launched at the World
Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. More than
100 organizations are working together to improve health,
livelihood and quality of life by reducing exposure to
indoor air pollution, primarily among women and children,
from household energy use. For more information, or to
join the Partnership, visit www.PCIAonline.org.
The summary for Module 1 Evaluation Basics was prepared
by Eva Rehfuess, WHO.
The panel concluded that treatment of children aged 5 to15 years with hydroxyurea does not
cause a growth delay. They felt there were insufficient data to allow them to evaluate the effects
of hydroxyurea on pubertal development. The panel found no data regarding the effects on
subsequent generations after exposure of germ cells to hydroxyurea, including exposure during
fetal life, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.
Legal definitions of IPV reference state or federal laws and generally refer specifically to
threats or acts of physical or sexual violence including forced rape, stalking, harassment,
certain types of psychological abuse and other crimes where civil or criminal justice
remedies apply. Laws vary from state to state. Since non-physical forms of IPV can have
many medical, psychological, behavioral and developmental effects, the definition used in
these Guidelines is better suited for the identification and treatment of IPV in the health
Health professions schools in Africa have an undeveloped culture of evaluation: although some have
been evaluated by regional institutions such as the Conférence Africaine des Doyens des Facultés de
Médecine d'Expression Française: African Conference of Deans of French-speaking Medical Schools
(CADMEF), most have gone several decades without evaluation; the schools perceive no link between
evaluation and educational reform.
Given the substantial findings in the area of control and cancer, it is important to
explore the construct of control in greater depth. It has been argued (Shapiro, Schwartz,
&Astin, 1996) that the relationship between control and health is not a simple linear one:
“control is good, and the more control one has the better.”Acceptance (positive yielding)
is a unique feature of control that is often overlooked in Western psychology (Shapiro &
Astin, 1998), and yet, the literature demonstrates that acceptance is a crucial component
in gaining an optimal sense of control.
Lichens are long-lived and can be monitored, field conditions permitting, in any season. Many lichens
have extensive geographical ranges, allowing study of pollution gradients over large areas. These
properties make them useful for spatial and temporal evaluation of pollutant accumulation in the
environment. Epiphytic lichens (those that grow on trees or plants) are often best suited to the study of air
pollution effects on lichen communities, lichen growth or physiology, and to the study of pollutant loading
Thus, after buying into winning funds,
investors unwittingly benefit from momentum returns on winning stocks. To
test this reasoning, Sapp and Tiwari calculate abnormal performance following
money f lows with and without accounting for the momentum factor, and find
that inclusion of the momentum factor in the performance evaluation proce-
dure eliminates outperformance of high f low funds. In addition, they show that
investors are not deliberate in seeking to benefit from stock-level momentum:
More popular funds do not have higher exposure to themomentumfactor at the
time they are selected.