How Direct Expansion Air-Conditioning Achieves Performance Goals For most of the A / C market, refrigeration-based ( DX ) cooling is the standard, and provides a point of comparison for new technologies. To describe the benefits and improvements of DEVap A / C technology, we must discuss standard A / C. Standard A / C reacts to SHR by cooling the air sensibly and, if dehumidification is required, by cooling the air below the dew point.
Standard Practice for classification of soils and soil-aggregate mixtures for highway construction purposes practice covers a procedure for classifying mineral and organomineral soils into seven groups based on laboratory determination of particle-size distribution, liquid limit, an plasticity index. It may be used when precise engineering classification is required, especially for highway construction purposes. Evaluation of soils within each group is made bymeans of a group index, which is a value calculated from an empirical formula.
The second edition of Safety Evaluation of Medical Devices continues to focus
on the objective of the first edition—to serve as a single-volume practical guide
for those who are responsible for or concerned with ensuring safety in the use
and manufacture of medical devices. It benefits from recognition of the limitations
and shortcomings of the previous edition, and also reflects the changes in
regulations, science, and the marketplace.
Partial evaluation technology continues to grow and mature. ACM SIGPLANsponsored
conferences and workshops have provided a forum for researchers to
share current results and directions of work. Partial evaluation techniques are
being used in commercially available compilers (for example the Chez Scheme
system). They are also being used in industrial scheduling systems (see Augustsson's
article in this volume), they have been incorporated into popular
commercial products (see Singh's article in this volume), and they are the basis
of methodologies for implementing domain-specific languages....
survey instruments, modeling exercises, guidelines for practitioners and research professionals, and supporting documentation; or deliver preliminary findings. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure that they meet high standards for research quality and objectivity.
Purposes to evaluate effectiveness of AF systems in Vo Nhai district, Thai Nguyen provinceto evaluate effect of typical AF systems in order to develop sustainable cultivated systems for improving living standard of local farmers in the district and in the mountainous and highland.
A lack of standard datasets and evaluation metrics has prevented the ﬁeld of paraphrasing from making the kind of rapid progress enjoyed by the machine translation community over the last 15 years. We address both problems by presenting a novel data collection framework that produces highly parallel text data relatively inexpensively and on a large scale.
Dependency parsing is a central NLP task. In this paper we show that the common evaluation for unsupervised dependency parsing is highly sensitive to problematic annotations. We show that for three leading unsupervised parsers (Klein and Manning, 2004; Cohen and Smith, 2009; Spitkovsky et al., 2010a), a small set of parameters can be found whose modiﬁcation yields a signiﬁcant improvement in standard evaluation measures. These parameters correspond to local cases where no linguistic consensus exists as to the proper gold annotation. ...
Machine translation (SMT), it can happen that the most accurate word segmentation as judged by the human gold-standard segmentation may not produce the best translation output (Zhang et al., 2008). While state-of-the-art Chinese word segmenters achieve high accuracy, some errors still remain.
This paper describes the application of the PARADISE evaluation framework to the corpus of 662 human-computer dialogues collected in the June 2000 Darpa Communicator data collection. We describe results based on the standard logﬁle metrics as well as results based on additional qualitative metrics derived using the DATE dialogue act tagging scheme. We show that performance models derived via using the standard metrics can account for 37% of the variance in user satisfaction, and that the addition of DATE metrics improved the models by an absolute 5%. ...
It is not always clear how the differences in intrinsic evaluation metrics for a parser or classiﬁer will affect the performance of the system that uses it. We investigate the relationship between the intrinsic evaluation scores of an interpretation component in a tutorial dialogue system and the learning outcomes in an experiment with human users. Following the PARADISE methodology, we use multiple linear regression to build predictive models of learning gain, an important objective outcome metric in tutorial dialogue.
This paper describes Subcat-LMF, an ISOLMF compliant lexicon representation format featuring a uniform representation of subcategorization frames (SCFs) for the two languages English and German. Subcat-LMF is able to represent SCFs at a very ﬁne-grained level. We utilized SubcatLMF to standardize lexicons with largescale SCF information: the English VerbNet and two German lexicons, i.e., a subset of IMSlex and GermaNet verbs. To evaluate our LMF-model, we performed a crosslingual comparison of SCF coverage and overlap for the standardized versions of the English and German lexicons.
The goals of The diagnostic adaptive behavior scale: Evaluating its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity is comparing the DABS standard score of assessed individuals with and without and ID diagnosis and determining sensitivity and speciﬁcity of the DABS to correctly identify persons with an ID diagnosis from individuals who do not have an ID diagnosis; and evaluating the sensitivity and speciﬁcity across age groups 4–21 years old.
Research tells us that teachers vary enormously in their ability to improve students’ performance on standardized tests but that many existing teacher evaluation and reward systems do not capture that variation. Armed with this knowledge and with improved access to longitudinal data systems linking teachers to students, reform-minded policymakers are increasingly attempting to base a portion of teachers’ evaluations or pay on student achievement gains.
Family planning refers to a conscious effort by a couple to limit or space the number of children they want to have through the use of contraceptive methods. Information about use of contraceptive methods was collected from female respondents by asking if they (or their partner) were currently using a method. Contraceptive methods are classified as modern and traditional methods. Modern methods include female sterilization, male sterilization, pill, IUD, injectables, implants, male condom, diaphragm, lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), and standard days method.
National Institute of Standards and Technology
We investigate the consistency of human assessors involved in summarization evaluation to understand its effect on system ranking and automatic evaluation techniques. Using Text Analysis Conference data, we measure annotator consistency based on human scoring of summaries for Responsiveness, Readability, and Pyramid scoring.
Previous studies evaluate simulated dialog corpora using evaluation measures which can be automatically extracted from the dialog systems’ logs. However, the validity of these automatic measures has not been fully proven. In this study, we ﬁrst recruit human judges to assess the quality of three simulated dialog corpora and then use human judgments as the gold standard to validate the conclusions drawn from the automatic measures. We observe that it is hard for the human judges to reach good agreement when asked to rate the quality of the dialogs from given perspectives.
Researchers typically evaluate word prediction using keystroke savings, however, this measure is not straightforward. We present several complications in computing keystroke savings which may affect interpretation and comparison of results. We address this problem by developing two gold standards as a frame for interpretation. These gold standards measure the maximum keystroke savings under two different approximations of an ideal language model. The gold standards additionally narrow the scope of deﬁciencies in a word prediction system. ...
Sentence Clustering is often used as a ﬁrst step in Multi-Document Summarization (MDS) to ﬁnd redundant information. All the same there is no gold standard available. This paper describes the creation of a gold standard for sentence clustering from DUC document sets. The procedure of building the gold standard and the guidelines which were given to six human judges are described. The most widely used and promising evaluation measures are presented and discussed. regenerated from all/some sentences in a cluster (Barzilay and McKeown, 2005). ...