Evidence and logic

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  • Essentials of Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences distills the overwhelming amount of material covered in introductory statistics courses into a handy, practical resource for students and professionals. This accessible guide covers basic to advanced concepts in a clear, concrete, and readable style. Essentials of Statistics for the Social and Behavioral Sciences guides you to a better understanding of basic concepts of statistical methods. Numerous practical tips are presented for selecting appropriate statistical procedures.

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  • What do the ¯elds of astronomy, economics, ¯nance, law, mathematics, med- icine, physics, and sociology have in common? Not much in the way of sub- ject matter, that's for sure. And not all that much in the way of methodology. What they do have in common, with each other and with many other ¯elds, is their dependence on a certain standard of rationality.

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  • In second grade, students wrote compositions using standard English conventions. They learned to use reference materials to locate information for their written compositions and oral reports. Students developed initial skills in editing and revising text and applied those skills to their writing. They learned to give and follow multistep directions, provide descriptive details when telling stories or recounting events, and structure their oral presentations in a logical sequence.

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  • Chapter I. Of The Necessity Of Commencing With An Analysis Of Language. Chapter II. Of Names. Chapter III. Of The Things Denoted By Names. Chapter IV. Of Propositions. Chapter V. Of The Import Of Propositions. Chapter VI. Of Propositions Merely Verbal. Chapter VII. Of The Nature Of Classification, And The Five Predicables. Chapter VIII. Of Definition.  Book II. On Reasoning.        Chapter I. Of Inference, Or Reasoning, In General. Chapter II. Of Ratiocination, Or Syllogism. Chapter III. Of The Functions And Logical Value Of The Syllogism. Chapter IV.

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  • Two strangers meet far from the reach of organized society . Each must decide quickly whether to attack, or await the action of the other. Together, they are better off choosing restraint and thus opening up possibilities for mutually beneficial intercourse . Desires for both self-protection and possible wealth enhancement, however, impel each of them toward an initial and immediate aggressive move .

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  • In the next section, we offer an overview of the economic logic behind microfinance institutions, describe how the movement from socially oriented non-profit microfinance institutions to for-profit microfinance has occurred, and lay out some of the unanswered questions about the role of commercialization in microfinance. We then seek answers to some of these questions by drawing on a data set that includes most of the world’s leading microfinance institutions.

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  • With digital evidence, technology is always needed to process the digital data and therefore the only difference between a forensic and a non-forensic investigation of digital data is whether or not the evidence can be used in a court of law. A forensic investigation is a process that uses science and technology to develop and test theories, which can be entered into a court of law, to answer questions about events that occurred.

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  • In Task 2, your answer is assessed according to your ability to write in a logical manner as you give a solution to a problem, present and justify an opinion, compare and contrast evidence and opinions, or evaluate and challenge ideas or arguments.

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  • George Kelly launched his revolutionary ideas about the nature of being human nearly fifty years ago upon a world ill-prepared to receive them. This book is evidence that the value of those ideas has not only been seen by those who are primarily academics but also by those who are primarily practitioners. And not only by psychologists, but by those in many other walks of life. So widespread has the interest in personal construct psychology become, that this book does not and cannot provide a complete coverage of personal construct work or of areas in which such work is relevant.

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  • This chapter provides an overview of the classical measures of risk- adjusted portfolio performance. We first describe the general logic that lies behind all of the measures, and then define the individual mea- sures. We then discuss the theoretical properties of the measures in more detail. Finally, we look at empirical estimation of the measures on actual managed portfolios, and review the empirical evidence based on the classical measures. The main idea in most of the classical measures of investment perfor- mance is quite simple.

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  • The selected results may be incorrect, but as the evidences are accumulated, the true facts can be found eventually. Thus, the uncertainties are decreasing. The experienced rules and strategies to implement the selecting mechanism of a BOS are extremely important for improving the efficiencies. The main tasks of the reasoning mechanism are to realize the cooperative problem solving, and according to the current defeasible logic structure (Ki, Ai), to carry out the assumption-based reasoning.

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  • Don’t Get Personal Remember that on the GRE, you must assess arguments and answer questions based only on the information presented on the test. For the moment, forget what you might know or how you might feel about the topic or issue. Base your answer only on the argument and evidence in front of you. Obviously, this is also a test of vocabulary. To understand the relationships of the words, you must know their meanings and their nuances. Sentence completion questions test your ability to follow the logic of complicated, though incomplete, sentences.

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  • It is surely obvious that medicine, like any other rational activity, must be based on evidence.

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  • The effort to achieve a single set of global accounting standards has gained significant momentum during the past three years. The logic behind the development of a single set of high-quality global accounting standards for the world’s integrating capital markets has been evident for some time.

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  • Make an Argument: The ability to frame and defend an argument is particularly important to students’ readiness for college and careers. The goal of making an argument is to convince an audience of the rightness of the claims being made using logical reasoning and relevant evidence. In some cases, a student will make an argument to gain access to college or to a job, laying out their qualifications or experience. In college, a student might defend an interpretation of a work of literature or of history and, in the workplace, an employee might write to recommend a course of action....

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  • We present a novel hybrid approach for Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) which makes use of a relational formalism to represent instances and background knowledge. It is built using Inductive Logic Programming techniques to combine evidence coming from both sources during the learning process, producing a rule-based WSD model. We experimented with this approach to disambiguate 7 highly ambiguous verbs in EnglishPortuguese translation.

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  • We present a novel approach to the word sense disambiguation problem which makes use of corpus-based evidence combined with background knowledge. Employing an inductive logic programming algorithm, the approach generates expressive disambiguation rules which exploit several knowledge sources and can also model relations between them. The approach is evaluated in two tasks: identification of the correct translation for a set of highly ambiguous verbs in EnglishPortuguese translation and disambiguation of verbs from the Senseval-3 lexical sample task. ...

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  • The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling pathway plays a major role in a number of pathophysio-logical conditions. However, there have been conflicting evidences regarding the action of cAMP/PKA on nuclear factor-jB(NF-jB). Inthis study,wehaveexplored the effect of cAMP/PKA on NF-jBactivity and determined its molecular mechanism. PKA activating agents or expression of thecatalyticsubunitofPKA(PKAc) inhibitedtheNF-jB-dependent reporter gene expression induced by tumor nec-rosis factora(TNFa). ...

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  • Chapter 7 - Individual and group decision making: How managers make things happen. In this chapter, we will address the following questions: How do people know when they’re being logical or illogical? How can I improve my decision making using evidence-based management and business analytics? How do I decide to decide?...

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