Xem 1-20 trên 180 kết quả Evidence available
  • Food availability, access, stability and utilization are all part of the multi-dimensional nature of food security. The “availability” aspect, discussed here, refers to the availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or inputs. Productivity is usually considered the ultimate benchmark when comparing the performance of agricultural systems. For example, those involved in agricultural research and development want to know how much yield would be reduced if conventional agriculture were converted to organic agriculture.

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  • As the global epidemic of diabetes continues to expand, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is predicted to double in the next 20 years. Continued population growth, increasing age, and worldwide globalization leading to changes in diet and patterns of physical inactivity have resulted in staggering numbers of individuals affected by the disease. A haphazard approach to treatment for a problem of this magnitude could easily overburden the healthcare system, particularly in areas of the world with limited resources.

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  • The creative and innovative ethic of American medicine is legend and has contributed fundamentally to the breadth, depth, and pace of advances in our capacity for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury. Indeed, the number of new pharmaceuticals, biologics, medical devices, and healthcare services introduced into American healthcare settings and marketplaces substantially exceeds the capacity to know the circumstances under which a particular intervention is best applied.

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  • Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been famously characterized by David Sackett as the “conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about individual care.” The central notion in EBM of the importance of integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external evidence provides a helpful framework for providers navigating the uncertainty inherent in patient care.

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  • The credit quality of a bond depends on the issuer’s ability to pay interest on the bond and, ultimately, to repay the principal upon maturity. Independent bond-rating agencies evaluate the financial health of bond issuers and issue alphabetical credit-quality ratings. Usually a lower credit rating means that the issuer must pay higher interest to offset the higher risk that principal and interest won’t be repaid on time. Figure 2 on page 10 describes the ratings used by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., and Standard & Poor’s Corporation.

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  • The evidence based medicine movement, which arose in McMaster University in Canada in the 1990s, has steadily grown to influence health-care professions other than medicine where it is recognised as evidence based practice. It is now widely accepted as a fundamental tenet where health care is available in developed country settings and the prevailing medical system is one of western medicine. The importance of evidence in defining policy and practice in the UK health system and others is acknowledged and, probably, enduring....

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  • When parts for your car are delayed or no longer available Where replacement parts are required for the repair of your car and they are delayed (for example, if they need to be imported from overseas) or if they are no longer available, we may pay you what it would have cost us to repair your car with those parts had they been available in Australia. Sub-contracting repairs We or the repairer we authorise to repair your car may sub-contract some of the repairs. Secure compliance labels If your car is fitted with a secure compliance (or car security) label which...

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  • This paper presents a model for summarizing multiple untranscribed spoken documents. Without assuming the availability of transcripts, the model modifies a recently proposed unsupervised algorithm to detect re-occurring acoustic patterns in speech and uses them to estimate similarities between utterances, which are in turn used to identify salient utterances and remove redundancies.

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  • This chapter will provide an overview of the literature on depression and anxiety during pregnancy, including prevalence of symptoms and syndromes, studies on the impact of depression, anxiety, and stress on birth outcomes and child development, the mechanisms by which these effects may operate, approaches to treatment of anxiety and depression during pregnancy, and the evidence available on the efficacy of these treatments. Implications for health and public policy, clinical treatment, and research will be discussed....

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  • Standardised, regularly available indicators to explain market developments for microfinance in Europe do not yet exist, or refer to Eastern Europe. Thus, we will focus in this section on the framework conditions for microfinance which are covered by the regularly updated Eurostat indicators for poverty and social inclusion, and by data on micro-enterprises. Specific aspects of the current crisis will be discussed later in this paper.

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  • The available data does, however, suggest that present PM10 values exceed the recommended limit values in the majority of Member States. In future projections, planned actions should be taken into consideration. These include the SOx and NOx Protocols within UNECE and the Auto-Oil programme. Abatement policies for other pollutants will also have an impact.

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  • Poor nutrition is a major problem in older Americans. Inadequate intake affects approximately 37 to 40 percent of community-dwelling individuals over 65 years of age (Ryan et al., 1992). In addition, the vast majority of older Americans have chronic conditions in which nutrition interventions have been demonstrated to be effective in improving health and quality-of-life outcomes. Eighty-seven percent of older Americans have either diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or a combination of these chronic diseases (NCHS, 1997).

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  • Addressing diet and physical activity in the workplace has the potential to improve the health status of workers; contribute to a positive and caring image of the company; improve staff morale; reduce staff turnover and absenteeism; enhance productivity; and reduce sick leave, health plan costs and workers' compensation and disability payments.

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  • It is highly likely that by augmenting the amount of funding available to banks, securitization activity had a significant and positive impact on credit growth during the years prior to the credit crisis (Loutskina and Strahan, 2009, Altunbas et al., 2009). In a number of countries experiencing a period credit growth, securitization activity probably strengthened the feedback effect between increases in housing prices and the credit expansion.

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  • The point of this table is to establish that adaptation is happening and to motivate how we use bank data to speak to tax evasion. A number of banks in southern Europe told us point blank that they have adaptation formulas to adjust clientsíreported income to the bankís best estimate of true income, and furthermore, that these adjustments are speciÖc to occupations. Table 1 shows evidence of adaptation in practice. Take the examples of lawyers, doctors, Önancial services, and accountants.

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  • Ammonia concentration should be measured using passive sampling techniques – either the ‘Alpha’ samplers used by the Ammonia Monitoring Scheme or commercially available diffusion tubes (e.g. those supplied and analysed by Gradko Ltd.). Wet deposition should be collected using a standard precipitation collector (Sykes & Lane, 1996) and analysed for NO2 - , NH4 + , SO4 - and pH.

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  • Research on forecasting is extensive and includes many studies that have tested alternative methods in order to determine which ones are most effective. We review this evidence in order to provide guidelines for forecasting for marketing. The coverage includes intentions, Delphi, role playing, conjoint analysis, judgmental bootstrapping, analogies, extrapolation, rule-based forecasting, expert systems, and econometric methods. We discuss research about which methods are most appropriate to forecast market size, actions of decision makers, market share, sales, and financial outcomes.

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  • The Review uses the results from one particular model, PAGE2002, to illustrate how the estimates derived from these integrated assessment models change in response to updated scientific evidence on the probabilities attached to degrees of temperature rise. The choice of model was guided by our desire to analyse risks explicitly - this is one of the very few models that would allow that exercise. Further, its underlying assumptions span the range of previous studies.

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  • Ramesh Raghavan*1, Charlotte Lyn Bright2 and Amy L Shadoin3 Address: 1George Warren Brown School of Social Work, and Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA, 2George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA and 3Social Metrics, Inc., Huntsville, AL, USA Email: Ramesh Raghavan* - raghavan@wustl.edu; Charlotte Lyn Bright - clbright@wustl.edu; Amy L Shadoin - amy@socialmetricsinc.com * Corresponding author Published: 16 May 2008 Implementation Science 2008, 3:26 doi:10.

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  • This section deals with "cosmetic" rust repairs, on panels that do not form part of the vehicles load-bearing structure. Any repairs to chassis, frame or mounting points of any type must be carried out to a professional standard, which is not the intended scope of this section. Rust repairs generally cover two areas; surface rust and rust holes (perforation ) Surface rust can usually be removed and held at bay successfully, perforated metalwork will need much more extensive work to provide a lasting repair.

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