Under the Clean Air Act, particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air
pollutants for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are
to be established on the basis of the scientific evidence on risks to human
health. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal and
state government agencies, and nongovernment organizations are conducting
a major multiyear research effort to improve scientific understanding of
airborne PM and its effects on human health.
The countries in which you are serving most likely inherited educational systems from Britain or
France. The original goal of these systems was to provide education to the children of the local
elites and to supply the colonial administrations and trading companies with clerical staff.
Remarkable progress has been made since the former colonies achieved independence.
Educational opportunities have been expanded at all levels as national leaders put a priory on
productivity and economic growth.
We live in an era with unparalleled opportunities to practice disease
prevention based on knowledge of the earth environment.
Although globally distributed early warning systems can monitor
physical hazards such as earthquakes and tsunamis, chemical hazards
on the other hand—whether actual or potential and natural or anthropogenically
induced—remain difficult to accurately identify in time and
space. Such hazards often have lengthy asymptomatic latency periods
before disability or disease becomes evident....
For some small businesses, the security of their information, systems, and networks might not be a high
priority, but for their customers, employees, and trading partners it is very important. The term Small
Enterprise (or Small Organization) is sometimes used for this same category of business or organization.
A small enterprise/organization may also be a nonprofit organization. The size of a small business
varies by type of business, but typically is a business or organization with up to 500 employees.
Small Business Problems and Priorities has three characteristics that make it unique. The
first is that the survey has a very large number of respondents. Three thousand five hundred
and thirty (3,530) small business owners returned useable questionnaires. The sizeable re-
sponse allows break-outs into a large number of respondent categories or groups with adequate
returns to analyze and compare them. It is thereby possible and appropriate to note where
the responses of those in different categories or groups vary from the population and among
While total platform security is the domain of AlienVault, Lookout
Mobile focuses on the weakest link in most communication
networks, the individual smartphone or iPad. Mobile phone security
has taken such a high priority lately, that the US State Department
now advises American diplomats and corporate executives to
remove the batteries from their smartphones before entering
areas where they’re likely to be vulnerable to cyber attack.
Evidence shows that social media are already affecting the ways in which people find, create,
share and learn knowledge, through rich media opportunities and in collaboration with each
other. These practices are at the core of Education and Training, as they promote the
competences needed for future jobs and enable new tools for educational institutions to
transform themselves into places that support the competences needed for participation in a
When technology was introduced to control air pollution by
reducing emissions of particles, it was found that the gaseous
emissions continued and caused problems of their own.
Currently efforts to control both particulate and gaseous
emissions have been partially successful in much of the
developed world, but there is recent evidence that air pollution
is a health risk even under these relatively favorable
For this paper, we have examined the concept of an investigation to determine what is required.
The result is an event-based framework that can be used to develop hypotheses and answer questions
about an incident or crime. Hypotheses are developed by collecting objects that may have played
a role in an event that was related to the incident. Once the objects are collected as evidence, the
investigator can develop hypotheses about previous events at the crime scene.
A growing empirical literature examines the relationship between family income and child
health. An article by Case, Lubotsky and Paxson (2002) (CLP) shows that, in the United States,
the socioeconomic gradient in adult health has its origins in childhood. Using data from 1986 to
1994, they find that poor children are reported by their parents to be in worse health than wealthy
children, and this gradient becomes larger as children grow older. These results suggest that the
relationship between income and health that is observed in adulthood has its roots in childhood.
Women’s health is a priority population for AHRQ,
meaning women have unique health care needs or
issues that require special focus. The Agency for
Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
supports research on all aspects of health care
provided to women, including: enhancing the
response of the health system to women’s needs;
understanding differences between the health care
needs of women and men; understanding and
eliminating disparities in health care; and
providing evidence to inform women in their
health care decisions.
The Rome ‘Declaration on Harmonisation’ of
February 2003, states that:
‘We in the donor community have been concerned with the growing
evidence that, over time, the totality and wide variety of donor
requirements for preparing, delivering and monitoring development
assistance are generating unproductive transaction costs for, and
drawing down the limited capacities of, partner countries’ and that
‘donor practices do not always fit well with national development
The EC will therefore play its part in promoting
harmonisation of policies and practices.
Increasing evidence suggests that serious mental illness is neurodevelopmental and the
onset of pre-psychotic symptoms occurs in adolescence, at a time when the cerebral cortex is
still developing. As with many complex disorders (e.g. hypertension, epilepsy, and
diabetes), there appear to be many aetiological pathways that might lead to the final mixture
of behavioral signs and symptoms we label ‘schizophrenia’.
None of the newer evidence altered the priority given to metformin cited in the previous
guideline. Although the specific cardioprotective effects of metformin suggested by the UKPDS
study were open to challenge from some of the very recent studies, this was not on the basis of
strong outcome data. Large observational studies from Canada and Scotland111,112 appeared to
support the widespread advantage of metformin over sulfonylureas, but the A Diabetes Outcome
Progression Trial (ADOPT) study did not.
Estimated Average Requirement When florid manifestations of the classic dietary deficiency diseases such as rickets, scurvy, xerophthalmia, and protein-calorie malnutrition were common, nutrient adequacy was inferred from the absence of their clinical signs. Later, it was determined that biochemical and other changes were evident long before the clinical deficiency became apparent. Consequently, criteria of nutrient adequacy are now based on biologic markers when they are available.
Rapid population growth by itself may not always result in environmental degradation. There
is case study evidence that some farm households and communities develop technical and institutional
innovations in natural resource management in response to increasing pressures on resources. Such
responses do not happen in all areas however, and need to be induced and supported through policy
measures and other development interventions (for example in the areas of tenure, reorientation of
agricultural research and extension, etc.).
Responding to the Challenge of Cancer in Europe has been written within the
Fighting Against Cancer Today (FACT) project, funded by the EU’s Public
Health Programme. It brings together a large body of evidence on cancer
control in Europe, a priority theme in public health during the Slovenian
Presidency of the European Union in 2008.
We are extremely grateful to all the authors for the enthusiasm they have
brought to this project and their hard work in meeting tight deadlines.
Financial education is the process by which individuals improve their understanding of financial
products and concepts; and through information, instruction and/or objective advice develop the skills
and confidence to become more aware of financial risks and opportunities, to make informed choices,
to know where to go for help, and to take other effective actions to improve their financial well-being
and protection (OECD 2005).
Three interactive workshops
were conducted on the first day:
“Psychopharmacological update in child
psychiatry” by Dr Avinash De Souza;
“Treatment planning – don’t get caught
in categorical diagnoses” by Dr Gordon
Harper; and “Parenting techniques in the
management of oppositional-conduct
disorders” by Dr Anula Nikapota. A training
course on “Psychoactive medication in
children: paradigm shift” was also conducted
by Dr Gordon Harper.
This publication is the product of a comprehensive consultation undertaken by WHO in 2001 involving leading experts in the field of cancer epidemiology, screening and treatment. It is part of WHO's commitment to provide evidence-based guidelines to decision makers, and a recognition of the priority that should be given to cervical cancer screening and treatment as an essential component of any comprehensive national cancer control program. The report focuses particularly on the situation in low and middle income countries - countries in......