Xem 1-20 trên 61 kết quả Evolution of economics
  • The Handbook of Public Sector Economics is first and foremost a textbook for graduate students in public administration and public policy. Although most handbooks are used as reference texts, this particular handbook was proposed and written as a textbook to be used as the primary book in a graduate public economics course or an important secondary or supplementary book in a public finance or public policy course in a program where a course in public economics is not offered.

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  • One of the most interesting and controversial of the arguments put forward by Schumpeter in The History of Economic Analysis is that the evolution of economic ideas does not proceed smoothly, but in jumps, through a succession of epochs of revolution and consolidation; of language confusion and ‘classical’ periods.

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  • There are few areas of economic policy- making in which the returns to good decisions are so high – and the punishment of bad decisions so cruel – as in the management of natural resource wealth. Rich endowments of oil, gas and minerals have set some coun- tries on courses of sustained and robust prosperity; but they have left others riddled with corruption and persistent poverty, with little of lasting value to show for squandered wealth. And amongst the most important of these decisions are those relating to the tax treatment of oil, gas and minerals....

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  • Advertising is more complicated than it used to be. In the innocent days of the 70’s and 80’s you could easily reach large audiences, both locally and nationally, through traditional advertising. Those days are long gone and an examination of the advertising playing field looks like a big pile of incomprehensible choice. Let’s sort through it a bit, by separating advertising into two categories: online advertising and offline advertising.

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  • In the short-run, however, substantial differences existed. During the First World War entertainment expenditure moved in opposite directions in France and Britain and remained stable in the US. During the great depression US real entertainment expenditure shrunk substantially, while European levels remained stable. The French expenditure level was substantially lower than in the other two countries, about a fifth in 1938 using exchange rates, although the difference is difficult to quantify because of devaluation of the franc and purchasing power parity issues.

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  • Before entering upon the subject-matter of these new memoirs, I must explain an hypothesis which will undoubtedly seem strange, but in the absence of which it is impossible for me to proceed intelligibly: I mean the hypothesis of a God. To suppose God, it will be said, is to deny him. Why do you not affirm him? Is it my fault if belief in Divinity has become a suspected opinion; if the bare suspicion of a Supreme Being is already noted as evidence of a weak mind; and if, of all philosophical Utopias, this is the only one which the world no...

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  • In contrast, privately held firms have relatively concentrated ownership structures and hence can efficiently communicate among shareholders information via private channels. Therefore, financial information and reported earnings are less important in communicating firm performance, which in turn makes private firms less likely to expend resources (e.g., hiring a high quality auditor) to produce earnings that are highly informative about economic performance.4 Moreover, reported earnings can assume a different role than for public firms.

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  • Before entering upon the subject-matter of these new memoirs, I must explain an hypothesis which will undoubtedly seem strange, but in the absence of which it is impossible for me to proceed intelligibly: I mean the hypothesis of a God. To suppose God, it will be said, is to deny him. Why do you not affirm him? Is it my fault if belief in Divinity has become a suspected opinion; if the bare suspicion of a Supreme Being is already noted as evidence of a weak mind; and if, of all philosophical Utopias, this is the only one which...

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  • Characterizing the evolution of Internet topology is important to our understanding of the Internet architecture and its interplay with technical, economic and social forces. A major challenge in obtaining empirical data on topology evolution is to identify real topology changes from the observed topology changes, since the latter can be due to either topology changes or transient routing dynamics. In this paper, we formulate the topology liveness problem and propose a solution based on the analysis of BGP data.

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  • This chapter define fiscal policy and describe fiscal goals and instruments at the macroeconomic, sectoral and microeconomic levels; discuss the evolution of views on the macroeconomic role of fiscal policy, focusing on the distinction between the Keynesian and structural approaches and the choice between discretionary and rulesbased fiscal regimes; distinguish between the various definitions of budget balance and explain the economic significance of each;...

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  • This lecture introduces you to unions growth and incidence. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Union membership, evolution of unions, workers covered by unions, level of unionization, unions in Canada and U.S.

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  • Any economically viable region can create a currency viable only within its borders, use that created capital to build infrastructure and industry, and the circulation of that money will operate a prosperous economy. Simultaneous with the 800-year evolution from plunder by raids to Plunder by Trade, wealth and power

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  • The McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), established in 1990, is McKinsey & Company’s business and economics research arm. MGI’s mission is to help leaders in the commercial, public, and social sectors develop a deeper understanding of the evolution of the global economy and to provide a fact base that contributes to decision making on critical management and policy issues.

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  • Very often the process of globalization is referred the word economy evolution. Often we measure and study globalization in the economic relevance. The economy is possibly the most recognized dimension of globalization. That is why we see many new phenomena and processes on economic macro levels and economic sectoral horizons as well as on specific “geography of globalization”. The book The Economic Geography of Globalization consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections: Globalization and Macro Process and Globalization and Sectoral Process. ...

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  • 11 At the Margins of Orthodoxy 11.1. Games, Evolution and Growth 11.1.1. Game theory Game theory was formulated as a logical instrument for investigating situations in which the results of the choices of some agents are at least partially determined by the choices of other agents with conflicting interests.

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  • For the philosopher of history, G.W.F. Hegel, the fundamental challenge for any student of societal evolution is to apprehend in thought the spirit of the age (or the zeitgeist)—i.e., to understand the motive force of change while it is still at work (Lauer, 1974). Catching the zeitgeist ‘in the act,’ so to speak, is a matter of practical importance; for gaining such an understanding would seem to be a necessary, if not sufficient, condition for successfully shaping ‘for the better’ any future state of affairs. Hegel does not give us much cause for optimism here.

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  • Popular American films penetrate nearly every aspect of contemporaryWestern life, and to an only somewhat lesser degreemost all cultures of the world. Historically, there are powerful sociological, cultural, economic, and even political reasons for this, but we would also argue thatHollywood-style filmhas evolved so that filmmakers havemore control over the attention of filmgoers (Smith 2006) and, in essence, the humanmind. One source of evidence concerns the changing pattern of shot lengths.

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  • The topic of policy formulation among interdependent economies has received much attention in the literature. China and Hong Kong are economically closely linked. Policy initiatives in one economy may influence the evolution of economics variables in the other. In the first essay a two-country model is used to illustrate the interdependence of these two economies. Not surprisingly, we found that the policy effects are asymmetric, due to differences in size. China’s economic policies have a big effect on Hong Kong, but the reverse is not true.

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  • As the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has pointed out, it has become increasingly important to look beyond the traditional earnings and economic value effects and assess indirect interest rate effects as well. Taking a broader view of the potential earnings impact of changing interest rates, banks also need to take into consideration the growing share of (interest-sensitive) fee- based fi nancial services (loan servicing, asset securitization programs, pay- ments etc.).

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  • We propose an evolution in the Federal Reserve’s current supervisory authority for BHCs to create a single point of accountability for the consolidated supervision of all companies that own a bank. All large, interconnected firms whose failure could threaten the stability of the system should be subject to consolidated supervision by the Federal Reserve, regardless of whether they own an insured depository institution. These firms should not be able to escape oversight of their risky activities by manipulating their legal structure.

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