This book provides a modern and basic introduction to a branch of international
law constantly gaining in importance in international life, namely international
humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict). It is constructed in a way suitable for
self-study. The subject matters are discussed in self-contained chapters, allowing each
to be studied independently of the others.
In response to the enactment by the U.S. Congress of the Intermodal
Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), the Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) requested that the National Research Council (NRC)
conduct a study on nonconventional concrete technology for renewal of the
highway infrastructure. ISTEA directed the FHWA to initiate a comprehensive,
long-range infrastructure research and development (R&D) program.
That philosophy is "materialism", which holds a number of bogus views about why
and how we came into being. Materialism maintains that there is nothing but the matter
and that matter is the essence of everything, be it organic or inorganic. Starting out from
this premise, it denies the existence of a divine Creator, that is, Allah. Reducing every-
thing to the level of matter, this notion transforms man into a creature that heeds only
matter and turns away from moral values of whatever kind. This is the beginning of big
disasters that will befall a man's life....
In the past decades, significant advances in tribology have been made as engineers
strive to develop more reliable and high performance products. The advancements are
mainly driven by the evolution of computational techniques and experimental
characterization that leads to a thorough understanding of tribological process on both
macro- and microscales.
In recent years, it was realized that the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) communication
systems seems to be inevitable in accelerated evolution of high data rates
applications. The MIMO systems, have received considerable att ention of researchers
and commercial companies due to their potential to dramatically increase the spectral
effi ciency and simultaneously sending individual information to the corresponding
users in wireless systems.
In the early 1970s, the United States government identified and became
wary of hazardous materials in soil, surface water, groundwater, and building
structures. Most of these contaminants resulted from the evolution of
technology without the benefit of chemical regulatory controls. The cost for
cleanup of such sites was projected to exceed a trillion dollars, the burden
of which was to be borne by the taxpayer and responsible parties. The term
“responsible party” is a broad term but, in the final analysis, a responsible
party is usually a property owner....
Reporting that rare
species are more abundant on larger islands, they make the case for greater
conservation efforts on larger islands. In the next chapter, Hugo Mejía-Madrid
evaluates the roles of heterochrony and ecological fitting in the evolution of helminth
fish parasites. Contrary to expectations, helminth speciation lags substantially behind
that of their hosts, tending to occur in pulses associated with continent jumps among
hosts. Next in this section, Toshiharu Mita et al.
In the past several years, there have been many developments in the materials for lead–acid batteries. Silver in grid alloys for high temperature climates in SLI batteries has increased the silver content of the recycled lead stream. Concern about silver and other contaminants in lead for the active material for VRLA batteries led to the initiation of a study by ALABC at CSIRO. The study evaluated the effects of many different impurities on the hydrogen and oxygen evolution currents in ﬂoat service for ﬂooded and VRLA batteries at different temperatures and potentials. ...
Since the first edition of this handbook, semiconductor technology has gone through a continued
evolution of new devices and materials like never before. Wafer sizes continue to grow with most
of the new fabs equipped for 12-inch wafers. The changes are triggered by many considerations:
continued need to provide more functions at lower cost; technology features less than 1000 Å
requiring new processes, and exponential increase in the number of device elements.
Since the birth of the field of optical biosensors, the pace of evolution of this
field has been swift. While myriad reports have appeared describing applications
and advancements in optical biosensor technology, few existing volumes are
dedicated to a synopsis of this field. Since the development of optical biosensors
mirrors the advances in the rapidly evolving telecommunications industry, we
deemed the time to be ripe for such an opus.
Under natural conditions the compartmentalization of the digestive tract of ruminants is a vital adaptation to the utilization of the biomass they select with grazing or browsing. The evolution of the reticulorumen made it possible to retain fibrous material in the rumen for long periods, and to sustain a microbial....
This thesis presents time-resolved measurements of the spin evolution of transient carrier populations in III-V quantum wells. Non-equilibrium distributions of spin polarisation were photoexcited and probed with picosecond laser pulses in three samples; a high mobility modulation n-doped sample containing a single GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well, an In0.11Ga0.89As/GaAs sample containing three quantum wells and, a multi-period GaAs/AlGaAs narrow quantum well sample.
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Many exciting impacts on our daily life are shortly anticipated due to recent advances
in wireless communication networks that enable real-time multimedia services to be
provided via mobile broadband Internet on a wide variety of terminal devices. The
trend is mainly driven by the evolution of wireless networks and advanced wireless
information and communication technology (ICT).
In a 1786 letter to a friend, Thomas
Jefferson called for “the diffusion of knowledge
among the people. No other sure foundation
can be devised for the preservation of
freedom and happiness.”1 Jefferson saw clearly
what has become increasingly evident since
then: the fortunes of a nation rest on the
ability of its citizens to understand and use
information about the world around them.
We are about to enter a century in which
the United States will be even more dependent
on science and technology than it has
been in the past.
This book deal with the modern developing of microwave and millimeter wave technologies.
The first chapter is aimed at describing the evolution of technological processes for the design
of passive functions in millimetre-wave frequency range. From the results HR SOI seems to
be a good candidate in the coming year to address both low cost and low power mass market
CMOS digital and RF/ MMW applications.
Robots can be considered as the most advanced automatic systems and robotics, as a
technique and scientific discipline, can be considered as the evolution of automation with interdisciplinary
integration with other technological fields.
A robot can be defined as a system which is able to perform several manipulative tasks
with objects, tools, and even its extremity (end-effector) with the capability of being reprogrammed
for several types of operations.
My primary purpose in writing and revising this book has been to provide
an updated introduction to the history of medicine. Although the
text began as a ‘‘teaching assistant’’ for my own one-semester survey
course, I hope that this new edition will also be of interest to a general
audience, and to teachers who are trying to add historical materials to
their science courses or science to their history courses.
Differential evolution is one of the most recent global optimizers. Discovered
in 1995 it rapidly proved its practical efficiency. This book gives you a chance
to learn all about differential evolution. On reading it you will be able to
profitably apply this reliable method to problems in your field.
As for me, my passion for intelligent systems and optimization began as far
back as during my studies at Moscow State Technical University of Bauman,
the best engineering school in Russia. At that time, I was gathering material
for my future thesis.