Whereas the mechanical performance of plant organs has often been discussed in
evolutionary biology [1,2], tree biomechanics has rarely been considered in the
context of functional ecology. Functional ecology aims at understanding the functions
of organisms that result in fluxes of biomass or energy within an ecosystem,
a forest. This discipline studies the processes controlling these fluxes, at either
the scale of an individual, community, or ecosystem, with their response to natural
or anthropic environmental variations....
"It's the animal in us," we often hear when we've been bad. But why not when we're good? Primates and Philosophers tackles this question by exploring the biological foundations of one of humanity's most valued traits: morality.
In this provocative book, primatologist Frans de Waal argues that modern-day evolutionary biology takes far too dim a view of the natural world, emphasizing our "selfish" genes. Science has thus exacerbated our reciprocal habits of blaming nature when we act badly and labeling the good things we do as "humane.
This book follows in the footsteps of two previous efforts—Snakes: Ecology
and Evolutionary Biology (1987) and Snakes: Ecology and Behavior
(1993)—to provide established and new researchers with a current synopsis
of snake ecology. In the preface to each of these earlier works, one of us
(R. A. S.) admitted that he had erred in assuming that another “Biology of
the Serpentes” book was not worth tackling. And after the fi rst two books,
we thought that perhaps yet another book was not needed—we were wrong
In this edited volume, global experts in ecology and evolutionary biology explore how theories in ecology elucidate the processes of invasion, while also examining how specific invasions inform ecological theory. This reciprocal benefit is highlighted in a number of scales of organization: population, community and biogeographic. The text describes example invaders in all major groups of organisms and from a number of regions around the globe.
Evolutionary biology and ecology share the goals
of describing variation in natural systems and
discovering its functional basis. Within this common
framework, evolutionary biologists emphasize
historical and lineage-dependent processes and
hence often incorporate phylogenetic reconstructions
and genetic models in their analyses. Ecologists,
while cognizant of historical processes, tend
to explain variation in terms of the contemporary
effects of biotic and abiotic environmental factors.
Immediately after the first drafts of the human genome sequence were reported almost
a decade ago, the importance of genomics and functional genomics studies became
well recognized across the broad disciplines of biological sciences research.
The Penguin Dictionary of Biology defines some 6,000 terms relating to this rich, complex, and constantly expanding subject?from amino acids, bacteria, and the cell cycle to X-ray diffraction, Ychromosomes, and zygotes. Long established as the definitive single-volume source, the dictionary has now been extensively updated for its eleventh edition.
Physicists pretend not only to know everything, but also to know everything bet-
ter. This applies in particular to computational statistical physicists like US. Thus
many of our colleagues have applied their computer simulation techniques to
ﬁelds outside of physics, and have published sometimes in biological, economic
or sociological journals, and publication ﬂow in the opposite direction has also
had great diffi culty fi nding a title for this book. For long, the working title was
Genetic Variation and Extinction. However, this title implies a causal and simple
relationship between genetic variation and extinction. I do think that the study
of genetic variation is extremely important for conservation biology but, as will
become apparent while reading the text, I am not as sure that this relationship is
as simple and straightforward as I thought when I began this voyage.
Chapter 21 - Descent with modification: A Darwinian view of life. This chapter describe the contributions to evolutionary theory made by Linnaeus, Cuvier, Lyell, Lamarck, Malthus, and Wallace; describe Lamarck’s theories, and explain why they have been rejected; explain what Darwin meant by “descent with modification”; explain Darwin’s observations and inferences; explain why an individual organism cannot evolve; describe evidence for evolution by natural selection.
Chapter 24 introduction to genomics: DNA sequencing on a genomic scale. We will begin this chapter with a discussion of positional cloning, a technique for identifying a gene responsible for a given trait, and see how much easier this process is when the sequence of the organism’s genome is known. Then we will examine the techniques scientists use to sequence DNA on a massive scale. We will also discuss some of the lessons we have learned from the sequences of genomes, especially the evolutionary insights to be gained by comparing the genomic sequences of different organisms.
Chapter 20 - Development and evolutionary change. This chapter includes contents: How does a molecular tool kit govern development? How can mutations with large effects change only one part of the body? How can differences among species evolve? How does the environment modulate development? How do developmental genes constrain evolution?
This lecture introduces you to the history of life on earth. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: How do scientists date ancient events? How have earth’s continents and climates changed over time? What are the major events in life’s history? Why do evolutionary rates differ among groups of organisms?
The topics discussed in this chapter are: What facts form the base of our understanding of evolution? What are the mechanisms of evolutionary change? What evolutionary mechanisms result in adaptation? How is genetic variation maintained within populations? What are the constraints on evolution? How have humans influenced evolution?
This chapter students will be able to: Recognize that natural selection is the correct mechanism for explain evolution; understand the importance of and identify sources of genetic variation; know how to solve various problems associated with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; list the five factors, and state an example of each, that affect Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and understand how each can produce evolutionary changes in a population experiencing any one of the five;...
For their controversial new book on the differences between the way men and women think and communicate, Barbara and Allan Pease spent three years traveling around the world, collecting the dramatic findings of new research on the brain, investigating evolutionary biology, analyzing psychologists, studying social changes, and annoying the locals.
John H. Vandermeer Ph.D., is a Margaret Davis Collegiate Professor in the
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor. His work has been in tropical agroecosystem ecology, tropical forest
ecology, and theoretical ecology. He is the author of over 150 scientific articles and
Professor Vandermeer was born in 1940 in Chicago, Illinois. He received his BS
in zoology from the University of Illinois, Champaign/Urbana, and his masters in
zoology from the University of Kansas.
This book presents biologically inspired walking machines interacting with their physical environment. It describes how the designs of the morphology and the behavior control of walking machines can benefit from biological studies.
The second section of the book involves the regional biogeography of individual taxa.
This section begins with a chapter by Alberto Taylor and his colleagues on the
biogeography of cycads in Central America. Their natural history and experimental
ecological methods integrate the evolutionary context of the cycad lineage with
contemporary autecology, and they elucidate biogeographic patterns and conservation
priorities, the latter of which are under-appreciated but pressingly important in