Evolutionary effects

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  • Evolutionary biology and ecology share the goals of describing variation in natural systems and discovering its functional basis. Within this common framework, evolutionary biologists emphasize historical and lineage-dependent processes and hence often incorporate phylogenetic reconstructions and genetic models in their analyses. Ecologists, while cognizant of historical processes, tend to explain variation in terms of the contemporary effects of biotic and abiotic environmental factors.

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  • Chapter 20 - Development and evolutionary change. This chapter includes contents: How does a molecular tool kit govern development? How can mutations with large effects change only one part of the body? How can differences among species evolve? How does the environment modulate development? How do developmental genes constrain evolution?

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  • An Ecosystem Approach provides a modern perspective of insect ecology that integrates two approaches traditionally used to study insect ecology: evolutionary and ecosystem. This integration substantially broadens the scope of insect ecology and contributes to prediction and resolution of the effects of current environmental changes, as these affect and are affected by insects. The third edition includes an updated and expanded synthesis of feedback and interactions between insects and their environment.

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  • The second section of the book involves the regional biogeography of individual taxa. This section begins with a chapter by Alberto Taylor and his colleagues on the biogeography of cycads in Central America. Their natural history and experimental ecological methods integrate the evolutionary context of the cycad lineage with contemporary autecology, and they elucidate biogeographic patterns and conservation priorities, the latter of which are under-appreciated but pressingly important in Central America.

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  • Read-Only Transactions By default, Oracle guarantees statement-level read consistency. The set of data returned by a single query is consistent with respect to a single point in time. However, in some situations, you might also require transaction-level read consistency. This is the ability to run multiple queries within a single transaction, all of which are read-consistent with respect to the same point in time, so that queries in this transaction do not see the effects of intervening committed transactions.

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  • Transportation of species to areas outside their native ranges has been a feature of human culture for millennia. During this time such activities have largely been viewed as beneficial or inconsequential. However, it has become increasingly clear that human-caused introductions of alien biota are an ecological disruption whose consequences rival those of better-known insults like chemical pollution, habitat loss, and climate change. Indeed, the irreversible nature of most alien-species introductions makes them less prone to correction than many other ecological problems.

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  • Less than 20 years ago the field of cannabis and the cannabinoids was still considered a minor, somewhat quaint, area of research. A few groups were active in the field, but it was already being viewed as stagnating. The chemistry of cannabis was well known, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), identified in 1964, being the only major psychoactive constituent and cannabidiol, which is not psychoactive, possibly contributing to some of the effects. These cannabinoids and several synthetic analogs had been thoroughly investigated for their pharmacological effects.

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  • For the past hundred years, innovation within the automotive sector has brought major technological advances, leading to safer, cleaner, and more affordable vehicles. But for the most part, since Henry Ford introduced the moving assembly line, the changes have been incremental, evolutionary. Now, in the early decades of the 21st century, the industry appears to be on the cusp of revolutionary change—with potential to dramatically reshape not just the competitive landscape but also the way we interact with vehicles and, indeed, the future design of our roads and cities.

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  • I have three vivid memories about learning statistics as an undergraduate that all involve misconceptions. Firstly, I remember my lecturer telling me that, after obtaining a result that was not statistically significant, I should conclude that timber harvesting did not have an effect (on what, I cannot remember). While the logic was flawed, I have since realized that it is a misconception shared by many ecologists.

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  • The nature of the HHS response will be guided by the epidemiologic features of the virus and the course of the pandemic. An influenza pandemic will place extraordinary and sustained demands not only on public health and health care providers, but also on providers of essential services across the United States and around the globe. Realizing that pandemic influenza preparedness is a process, not an isolated event, to most effectively implement key pandemic response actions, specific capabilities must be developed through preparedness activities implemented before the pandemic occurs.

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  • Before we consider opportunities and solutions, it is worth noting that medicine’s isolation from evolutionary biology is just one example of the fragmentation that iso- lates many disciplines. Some of the isolation results from academic structures that allow hiring and promotion to be controlled by narrow disciplines. Universities talk a lot about promoting interdisciplinary work precisely because their structures so efficiently prevent it. However, disci- plines exist for good reasons. There is too much to know.

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  • As was mentioned previously, the times and business priorities are changing at a rapid pace: no longer do organisations aspire to profit for shareholders alone – they are increasingly answerable to other stakeholders. As a result of regulatory and media pressure, in particular, best practice, transparency, open-ness and fair play are needed to be successful and sustainable in business. While traditional concepts still exist and are referred to in this handbook, new meanings are also developing.

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  • Increasing attention has also been given to dissecting and understanding diversity in relation to genes underlying important agronomic traits in a number of crops. Molecular phylogenetics and genetic diversity analysis can help to clarify the taxonomic identity and evolutionary relationships of the wild relatives of crop species. These methods can also help prevent misidentification and carefully plan effective germplasm management strategies.

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  • Physicists pretend not only to know everything, but also to know everything bet- ter. This applies in particular to computational statistical physicists like US. Thus many of our colleagues have applied their computer simulation techniques to fields outside of physics, and have published sometimes in biological, economic or sociological journals, and publication flow in the opposite direction has also started.

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  • Island biogeography is an important subject for several reasons. First, it has been and remains a field which feeds ideas, theories, models, and tests of same into ecology, evolutionary biology, and biogeography. This is because islands provide natural scientists with model systems—replicated and simplified contexts—allowing us to isolate particular factors and processes and to explore their effects.

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  • Many of today's existing enterprise security infrastructures are the result of an incremental and evolutionary process. As a consequence, they generally comprise a series of point solutions, upgrades, and add-ons that are not seamlessly integrated, creating gaps in their overall security effectiveness.

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  • Molecular phylogeny among catalase–peroxidases, cyto-chromecperoxidases, and ascorbate peroxidases was ana-lysed. Sixty representative sequences covering all known subgroups of class I of the superfamily of bacterial, fungal, and plant heme peroxidases were selected. Each sequence analysed contained the typical peroxidase motifs evolved to bind effectively the prosthetic heme group, enabling per-oxidatic activity.

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