Evolutionary origins

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Relationship between the tissue-specificity of mouse gene expression and the evolutionary origin and function of the proteins...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: The evolutionary origins and significance of drug addiction

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: " Does codon bias have an evolutionary origin?

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  • Replication of DNA is essential for the propagation of life. It is somewhat surprising then that, despite the vital nature of this process, cellular organ-isms show a great deal of variety in the mechanisms that they employ to ensure appropriate genome duplication. This diversity is manifested along classical evolutionary lines, with distinct combinations of replicon architec-ture and replication proteins being found in the three domains of life: the Bacteria, the Eukarya and the Archaea.

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  • contrast, the solution is defined by data structures that describe the original problem context indirectly and thus, determine the search space within an evolutionary search (optimization process). There exists the analogy in the nature, where the genotype encodes the phenotype, as well. Consequently, a genotype-phenotype mapping determines how the genotypic representation is mapped to the... more

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  • n contrast, the solution is defined by data structures that describe the original problem context indirectly and thus, determine the search space within an evolutionary search (optimization process). There exists the analogy in the nature, where the genotype encodes the phenotype, as well. Consequently, a genotype-phenotype mapping determines how the genotypic representation is mapped to the phenotypic property. In other words, the phenotypic property determines the solution in original problemcontext. ...

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  • "It's the animal in us," we often hear when we've been bad. But why not when we're good? Primates and Philosophers tackles this question by exploring the biological foundations of one of humanity's most valued traits: morality. In this provocative book, primatologist Frans de Waal argues that modern-day evolutionary biology takes far too dim a view of the natural world, emphasizing our "selfish" genes. Science has thus exacerbated our reciprocal habits of blaming nature when we act badly and labeling the good things we do as "humane.

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  • The evolutionary origins of nectaries and nectar are relatively obscure, but several researchers, working on a broad scale on the evolution of angiosperm families, have provided overviews of nectary incidence, diversity, origin, and function. Two contrasting examples below show how concepts regarding the origin of nectaries and nectar have been modified in the light of new information. Firstly, in his outline of the classification of the angiosperms, Armen Takhtajan (1980) gives a simple, concise statement on the purpose and origin of nectaries:...

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  • Less than 20 years ago the field of cannabis and the cannabinoids was still considered a minor, somewhat quaint, area of research. A few groups were active in the field, but it was already being viewed as stagnating. The chemistry of cannabis was well known, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), identified in 1964, being the only major psychoactive constituent and cannabidiol, which is not psychoactive, possibly contributing to some of the effects. These cannabinoids and several synthetic analogs had been thoroughly investigated for their pharmacological effects.

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  • To the student of the origins of Christianity there is naturally no period of Western history of greater interest and importance than the first century of our era; and yet how little comparatively is known about it of a really definite and reliable nature.

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  • Among the RFamide peptide groups, PQRFamide peptides, such as neuro-peptide FF (NPFF) and neuropeptide AF (NPAF), share a common C-ter-minal Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH2 motif. LPXRFamide (X¼L or Q) peptides, such as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), frog growth hormone-releasing peptide (fGRP), goldfish LPXRFamide peptide and mammalian RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs), also share a C-terminal Leu-Pro-Leu⁄Gln-Arg-Phe-NH2 motif.

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  • While transnational loan schemes can help migrant families purchase homes or start businesses in their countries of origin, there are a number of challenges that must be addressed. For example, MFIC found that the 50-50 percent risk-sharing arrangement between MFIC and MFIs was difficult to implement. It also found that if a client were to default on his/her loan, MFIC could take no legal action in the United States. Different institutions underwriting the policy also produced varying assessments on the level of credit risk of loan clients.

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  • The Rhodopsin family of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) includes the phylogenetic a-group consisting of about 100 human members. The a-group is the only group of GPCRs that has many receptors for biogenic amines which are major drug targets. Several members of this group are orphan receptors and their functions are elusive. In this study we present a detailed phylogenetic and anatomical characterization of the Gpr153 recep-tor and also attempt to study its functional role.

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  • .Page iii Evolutionary Genetics Second Edition John Maynard Smith School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex .Page iv Disclaimer: This book contains characters with diacritics. When the characters can be represented using the ISO 8859-1 character set (http://www.w3.org/TR/images/latin1.gif , netLibrary will represent them as they ) appear in the original text, and most computers will be able to show the full characters correctly.

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  • An origin of these algorithms is found in the Darwian principles of natural selection (Darwin, 1859). In accordance with these principles, only the fittest individuals can survive in the struggle for existence and reproduce their good characteristics into next generation. As illustrated in Fig. 1, evolutionary algorithms operate with the population of solutions. At first, the solution needs to be defined within an evolutionary algorithm. Usually, this definition cannot be described in the original problemcontext directly....

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  • Similarly, when a problemto be solved froma domain where the problem-specific knowledge is absent evolutionary algorithms can be successfully applied. Evolutionary algorithms are easy to implement and often provide adequate solutions. An origin of these algorithms is found in the Darwian principles of natural selection (Darwin, 1859). In accordance with these principles, only the fittest individuals can survive in the struggle for existence and reproduce their good characteristics into next generation....

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  • Life on Earth originated and then evolved from a universal common ancestor approximately 3.7 billion years ago. Repeated speciation and the divergence of life can be inferred from shared sets of biochemical and morphological traits, or by shared DNA sequences. These homologous traits and sequences are more similar among species that share a more recent common ancestor, and can be used to reconstruct evolutionary histories, using both existing species and the fossil record. Existing patterns of biodiversity have been shaped both by speciation and by extinction....

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  • The theoretical metrics developed, such as genetic variance and heritability (Fisher, 1930; Wright, 1931), provided the quantitative standards necessary for the evolutionary synthesis. Further research has focused on the origin of genetic diversity, its maintenance and its role in evolution. Simple questions such as “who breeds with whom” initiated studies on the relatedness of populations.

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  • How different levels of genetic variance affect the rate of evolutionary change within populations has also been intensively studied. Such changes were originally studied using phenotypic markers: variation among individual plants in traits, such as leaf shape or flower color (Ward et al., 2008). Subsequently the detection of genetic variation has become more sensitive, firstly through the utilization of variation in enzymes (allozymes) and then through PCR-based marker systems allowing direct examination of DNA sequence variation.

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  • In our quest to elucidate the origin of the universe and the formation of galaxies, particularly that of the Milky Way in which we live, astounding progress has been made in recent years through observational and theoretical studies. Not only have gigantic surveys covering a large fraction of the sky brought statistics enlightening evolutionary paths of galaxies, but powerful instruments, such as radio interferometers and ground- and space-based optical/ infrared telescopes, have been able to map individual objects with high sensitivity and spatial resolution.

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