Evolutionary biology and ecology share the goals
of describing variation in natural systems and
discovering its functional basis. Within this common
framework, evolutionary biologists emphasize
historical and lineage-dependent processes and
hence often incorporate phylogenetic reconstructions
and genetic models in their analyses. Ecologists,
while cognizant of historical processes, tend
to explain variation in terms of the contemporary
effects of biotic and abiotic environmental factors.
With the recent trends towards massive data sets and significant computational power, combined with evolutionary algorithmic advances evolutionary computation is becoming much more relevant to practice. Aim of the book is to present recent improvements, innovative ideas and concepts in a part of a huge EA field.
Recognising that significant levels of investment are required to make the transition to a low carbon
economy, the Capital Markets Climate Initiative (CMCI) was launched by the UK Minister of State for
Climate Change, Gregory Barker, to help accelerate the response to this financing challenge by supporting
the scale up of private finance flows to developing countries. The CMCI will be working with policymakers in
developing countries to understand why and how public sector action can help mobilise private capital and
encourage new markets in low carbon investments.
I have three vivid memories about learning statistics as an undergraduate
that all involve misconceptions. Firstly, I remember my lecturer telling
me that, after obtaining a result that was not statistically significant,
I should conclude that timber harvesting did not have an effect (on what,
I cannot remember). While the logic was flawed, I have since realized
that it is a misconception shared by many ecologists.
This property is required because the empirically
observed densities of returns contrast with the Gaussian model [see Pagan 1996]. This
rejection results from two stylised facts. First, large price changes appear more frequently
than the normal density would lead to expect. Second, there are indications of significant
asymmetry in stock returns. In other words, negative and positive price changes do not have
the same probability. These two stylised facts are also apparent in implied volatilities.
Scale is a unifying concept that cuts across all natural and social sciences. At the
same time, scaling is a common challenge in both basic and applied research.
Accordingly, scale and scaling have become two of the most widely used buzzwords
in ecology today. Over the past two decades, more than a dozen books and many
more journal papers have been published on the problems of scale and scaling in
ecology and geophysical sciences. These publications, as reviewed in the chapters of
this book, have contributed significantly to our current understanding of scale issues.
Laetoli in northern Tanzania is one of the most important paleontological and paleoanthropological
sites in Africa. It is renowned for the recovery of early hominin fossils belonging to
A. afarensis and for the discovery of remarkably well-preserved trails of footprints of hominins.
Given the significance of Laetoli for understanding and interpreting the evolutionary history of
early hominins the author initiated long-term geological and paleontological investigations at
Laetoli and at other fossil localities on the Eyasi Plateau.
1 While our predecessors in the field of the history of religions were interested in the roles that animals played in religion, they usually limited animals’ religious significance to the earlier evolutionary stages. In these earlier stages of human cultural development, people believed that animals had souls and that mystical links existed between animals and human beings.
In recent years, biometrics has developed rapidly with its worldwide applications for daily life. New trends and novel developments have been proposed to acquire and process many different biometric traits. The ignored challenges in the past and potential problems need to be thought together and deeply integrated. The key objective of the book is to keep up with the new technologies on some recent theoretical development as well as new trends of applications in biometrics.
This second edition presents new chapters on (a) the utilization of mutants as highresolution
nanosensors of short-living protein structures and protein nanophysics
(Chap. 11) and (b) the recently developed method of evolutionary computer
programming (Chap. 12), respectively. In the latter method, computer programs
evolve themselves towards a higher performance. In contrast to simple selflearning
programs, the code of the evolved program differs significantly from that
of the original "wild-type" program.
Information gathered from the remaining intact tropical habitats might seem to deserve
special treatment, for such data can be thought to represent precise, finely
tuned biological interrelationships. Their evolutionary reason for existence might
be revealed simply in their current ecology. Tropical data in general are often
deemed more significant than comparable data taken in other habitats. Like the
first-mentioned bias, this belief can encourage creative speculation, but sometimes
it diminishes the accuracy with which the actual setting of a field study is examined
Many of today's existing enterprise security infrastructures are the result of an
incremental and evolutionary process. As a consequence, they generally comprise a
series of point solutions, upgrades, and add-ons that are not seamlessly integrated,
creating gaps in their overall security effectiveness.
TOWARD A GREATER AWARENESS OF THE PRIVILEGE OF WHAT IT MEANS TO be the
human animal is what this book is about. To me, it is a wild and ethical imperative—an urgent reminder
that we are inextricably linked to the land; that the history of every living creature is within us; that we
are above all a mindful, poetic species and that we are the “keepers of our zoo.” If we cannot accept
this then we will continue to be the creatures of our own undoing.