Evolutionary theory

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  • Chapter 21 - Descent with modification: A Darwinian view of life. This chapter describe the contributions to evolutionary theory made by Linnaeus, Cuvier, Lyell, Lamarck, Malthus, and Wallace; describe Lamarck’s theories, and explain why they have been rejected; explain what Darwin meant by “descent with modification”; explain Darwin’s observations and inferences; explain why an individual organism cannot evolve; describe evidence for evolution by natural selection.

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  • The Dictionary of Nursing Theory and Research provides a compilation of definitions and discussions of terms that are commonly encountered in the nursing literature. In this third edition of our dictionary we have retained and revised most of the terms in the earlier versions and have added many new ones. The new terms are in response to evolutionary changes that have occurred over the intervening years. We have added entries for evidence-based practice and Internet research.

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  • "It's the animal in us," we often hear when we've been bad. But why not when we're good? Primates and Philosophers tackles this question by exploring the biological foundations of one of humanity's most valued traits: morality. In this provocative book, primatologist Frans de Waal argues that modern-day evolutionary biology takes far too dim a view of the natural world, emphasizing our "selfish" genes. Science has thus exacerbated our reciprocal habits of blaming nature when we act badly and labeling the good things we do as "humane.

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  • The Penguin Dictionary of Biology defines some 6,000 terms relating to this rich, complex, and constantly expanding subject?from amino acids, bacteria, and the cell cycle to X-ray diffraction, Ychromosomes, and zygotes. Long established as the definitive single-volume source, the dictionary has now been extensively updated for its eleventh edition.

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  • In my professional life I have been asked many times the simple question: What is transpersonal psychology, counselling or psychotherapy? The answer is straightforward: it is a broad transcultural theory of human nature that posits that human beings are more than physical and psychological beings, with some form of spirituality being a reasonable bet. Oh, and by the way, it is also a discrete field of study that could be conceived as having had about 40 years of academic recognition.

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  • This book is a collection of current research in the application of evolutionary algorithms and other optimal algorithms to solving the TSP problem. It brings together researchers with applications in Artificial Immune Systems, Genetic Algorithms, Neural Networks and Differential Evolution Algorithm. Hybrid systems, like Fuzzy Maps, Chaotic Maps and Parallelized TSP are also presented.

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  • In fact, existing regulation, both private and governmental, is working to punish the individual responsible in that case. However, a simple legal restriction on the number of embryos transferred would not be desirable. It is preferable that the clinical judgment of highly trained specialty physicians, brought to bear on the particular circumstances of each case and made with evidence-based national guidelines in mind, determine the course of treatment.

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  • An image is a two dimensional projection of a three dimensional scene. Hence a degeneration is introduced since no information is retained on the distance of a given point in the space. In order to extract information on the three dimensional contents of a scene from a single image it is necessary to exploit some a priori knowledge either on the features of the scene, i.e. presence/absence of architectural lines, objects sizes, or on the general behaviour of shades, textures, etc.

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  • This book is based on the proceedings of a highly original interna tional conference entitled Histoires de la Terre which took place at th University of Sheffield from 30 March to 1 April 2007. Its chapter explore how Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment developments i the earth sciences and related fields (palaeontology, mining, agron omy, archaeology, seismology, oceanography, evolutionary theory etc.) impacted on contemporary French culture. They reveal that geo logical ideas were a much more...

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  • This book project began in the summer of 1998. I spent two weeks of that summer at Radi, a small village outside Siena, discussing the contents of the MS with a sociologist and fellow doctoral student from the Zentrum für Höhere Studien (ZHS) at the University of Leipzig, Andreas Westerwinter1. Our discussions were mostly about the value, if any, of the discipline of geopolitics and the limited usefulness of neoclassical economics and modern political science for trying to explain current economic events, in particular the emergence of China as an economic superpower.

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  • France holds a rather unusual position in the field of evolutionary biology. Whereas French naturalists from Buffon, Cuvier and Lamarck onwards made great discoveries in centuries past, French biologists missed the turning when it came to genetics. Until the 1970s, most French biologists were convinced that genetics was not as interesting as developmental science (some "rare species", for example R. Chandebois, still hold this view). For them, the general principles of heredity resided in the cytoplasm rather than in the genome.

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  • Marx, it is often assumed, cared only about industrial growth and the development of economic forces. John Bellamy Foster examines Marx's neglected writings on capitalist agriculture and soil ecology, philosophical naturalism, and evolutionary theory. He shows that Marx, known as a powerful critic of capitalist society, was also deeply concerned with the changing human relationship to nature. Marx's Ecology covers many other thinkers, including Epicurus, Charles Darwin, Thomas Malthus, Ludwig Feuerbach, P. J. Proudhon, and William Paley.

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  • History of Economics (3-4 semester credits) This course examines the history of economics over the past two centuries. Topics address development of the principal schools of economic theory including social, political and philosophical impacts upon economic theories. Students will address the main works of Malthus, J.S. Mill, Marx, Keynes and Galbraith and others. Microeconomic Principles (3-4 semester credits) Students analyze the impact of individual decision making units and the consequential behaviors of individual firms, corporations and industries in the economy.

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  • The idea for The Phylogenetic Handbook was conceived during an early edition of theWorkshop on Virus Evolution andMolecular Epidemiology. The rationale was simple: to collect the information being taught in the workshop and turn it into a comprehensive, yet simply written textbook with a strong practical component. Marco and Annemie took up this challenge, and, with the help of many experts in the field, successfully produced the First Edition in 2003.

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  • This first research project deals with the Human Genome Project, the genetic sequencing exercise of humanity. An extraordinary international project of biological science will add new, and undo old, knowledge about our evolution as a species. ’It is, though, a controversial subject, and we thought we would start in two phases. Dr Jeff Lever’s paper published here worries aloud whether we teach evolutionary theory properly and with sufficient depth to pupils and scholars at our schools.

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  • Some of the most useful applications of evolution often do not use evolutionary theory directly; instead they use technologies developed by evolutionary biologists. In par- ticular, methods for reconstructing phylogenies are being applied to genetic data with very practical results. HIV is especially susceptible to such methods because its fast- accumulating mutations create finely detailed phylogenies. For instance, certain cases of HIV could be traced back to a specific Florida dentist (Ciesielski et al. 1992).

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  • This book addresses the evolutionary stage of Chemical Engineering and provides an overview to the state of the art and technological advancements. Chemical Engineering applications have always been challenging. Optimization of plausible solutions to problems in economic manner through technology is worth. The script has been designed to enable the reader to access the desired knowledge on fundamentals and advancements in Chemical Engineering in a single text.

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  • This book explores four overlapping themes in biogeography among multiple plant and animal groups, across subcontinental to global spatial scales, and over evolutionary time. These four themes include: 1) biogeographic theory and tests of concepts and processes; 2) the regional biogeography of individual taxa; 3) historical and contemporary biogeography of complex landscapes; and 4) the evolutionary biogeography of macrotaxa. In the first chapter of the conceptual biogeography section, Khalid Al Mutairi et al.

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  • In this course on game theory, we will be studying a range of mathematical models of con°ict and cooperation between two or more agents. The course will attempt an overview of a broad range of models that are studied in game theory, and that have found application in, for example, economics and evolutionary biology. In this Introduction, we outline the content of this course, often giving examples.

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  • The theoretical metrics developed, such as genetic variance and heritability (Fisher, 1930; Wright, 1931), provided the quantitative standards necessary for the evolutionary synthesis. Further research has focused on the origin of genetic diversity, its maintenance and its role in evolution. Simple questions such as “who breeds with whom” initiated studies on the relatedness of populations.

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