Exhaustive search

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  • Existing algorithms for generating referential descriptions to sets of objects have serious deficits: while incremental approaches may produce ambiguous and redundant expressions, exhaustive searches are computationally expensive. Mediating between these extreme control regimes, we propose a best-first searching algorithm for uniquely identifying sets of objects. We incorporate linguistically motivated preferences and several techniques to cut down the search space. Preliminary results show the effectiveness of the new algorithm. ...

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  • What-if models of pavement management analysis such as RTIM, HERS and HDM-4 predict the consequences of different maintenance options to be tested that are specified exogenously. Therefore, although they are often used to “optimize” maintenance options, they are not optimizing them in its true sense; they are merely used to find the best options among those tested. Since there are usually infinite numbers of options, it is impossible to exhaust all of them and only suboptimal optimizers are found.

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  • When we agreed to edit this book for a second edition, we looked forward to a bit of updating and including some of our latest research results. However, the effort grew rapidly beyond our original vision. The use of genetic algorithms (GAs) is a quickly evolving field of research, and there is much new to recommend. Practitioners are constantly dreaming up new ways to improve and use GAs. Therefore this book differs greatly from the first edition.

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  • How many padding bits must be added to a message of 100 characters if 8-bit ASCII is used for encoding and the block cipher accepts blocks of 64 bits? 1 MODERN BLOCK CIPHERS Substitution or Transposition ? To be resistant to exhaustive-search attack, a modern block cipher needs to be designed as a substitution cipher. Suppose that we have a block cipher where n = 64. If there are 10 1’s in the ciphertext, how many trial-and-error tests does Eve need to do to recover the plaintext from the intercepted ciphertext in each of the following cases? a. The cipher is designed as a...

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  • A budget should include all projected expenses associated with a project, from refreshments at focus group discussions (FGDs) to staff salaries. When your project is complete, you can fill in actual budget costs and compare them with your projected figures for future planning. Figure 2 shows a sample budget for print, radio, and video materials. While not an exhaustive list, this sample includes the major expenses you might encounter in a typical materials development project.

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  • We show experiments for on-line convergence to a global partitioning solution for sharing the database buffer pool, storage cache, and disk bandwidth in dif- ferent application configurations. We compare our ap- proach to two baseline approaches, which optimize ei- ther the memory partitioning, or the disk partitioning, as well as combinations of these approaches without global coordination. We show that for most application con- figurations, our computed model effectively prunes most of the search space, even without any additional tuning through experimental sampling.

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  • Moreover, typically, previous work investigated en- forcing a given resource partitioning of a single re- source, within a single software tier at a time. In our own previous work in the area of dynamic parti- tioning, we have investigated either partitioning mem- ory, through a simulation-based exhaustive search ap- proach [24], or partitioning storage bandwidth, through an adaptive feedback-loop approach [23], but not both.

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  • We introduce a stochastic grammatical channel model for machine translation, that synthesizes several desirable characteristics of both statistical and grammatical machine translation. As with the pure statistical translation model described by Wu (1996) (in which a bracketing transduction grammar models the channel), alternative hypotheses compete probabilistically, exhaustive search of the translation hypothesis space can be performed in polynomial time, and robustness heuristics arise naturally from a language-independent inversiontransduction model. ...

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  • Generation of heating water. Cogeneration systems capture excess heat from the engine, which can be used to generate heating water that can then be utilized by local or district heating systems to cover their basic heat requirements. Peak heat demand can be covered through the combined use of a buffer and a peak boiler. Due to varying heat demands during the year, multi-engine- installations are the preferred solution for district heating systems. Steam production and drying processes.

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  • It is a tacit assumption of m u c h linguistic inquiry that all distinct derivations of a string should assign distinct meanings. But despite the tidiness of such derivational uniqueness, there seems to be no a priori reason to assume that a g r a m m a r must have this property. If a grammar exhibits derivational equivalence, whereby distinct derivations of a string assign the same meanings, naive exhaustive search for all derivations will be redundant, and quite possibly intractable. In this paper we show how notions of derivation-reduction and normal form can be used to...

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  • Formal Languages & Automata: Chapter 5 - Context-Free Languages includes Context-Free Grammars, Derivations, Derivation Trees, Sentential Forms & Derivation Trees, Membership and Parsing, Membership and Parsing, Exhaustive Search Parsing.

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  • The recent proliferation of elec¬tronic databases and powerful search engines will undoubtedly permit the antedating of many of the entries. Individualised dating research, such as Allen Walker's hunt for the origin of 'OK' or Barry Popik's exhaustive work on terms such as 'hot dog', produces dramatic antedatings: we could not undertake this level of detailed research for every entry.

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  • A∗ parsing makes 1-best search efficient by suppressing unlikely 1-best items. Existing kbest extraction methods can efficiently search for top derivations, but only after an exhaustive 1-best pass. We present a unified algorithm for k-best A∗ parsing which preserves the efficiency of k-best extraction while giving the speed-ups of A∗ methods. Our algorithm produces optimal k-best parses under the same conditions required for optimality in a 1-best A∗ parser.

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  • Finally, we refine the accuracy of the computed per- formance model through experimental sampling. We use statistical interpolation between computed and ex- perimental sample points in order to re-approximate the per-application performance models, thus dynamically refining the model. We experimentally show that, by us- ing this method, convergence towards near-optimal con- figurations can be achieved in mere minutes, while an exhaustive exploration of the multi-dimensional search space, representing all possible partitioning configura- tions, would take weeks, or even months.

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  • The KMP algorithm [Knuth et al. 1997] creates a prefix function from the pattern to define transition functions that expedite the search. The prefix func- tion is built in O(m) time, and the algorithm has a worst case time complex- ity of O(nCm), independent from the alphabet size. Exhaustive experiments [Wright et al. 1998] show that, in general, KMP has the best performance. Be- cause of its good performance, and its independence from the alphabet size, KMP provides a natural basis for dealing with the more general problem of optimizing database queries on sequences.

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  • A prototypical problem road agencies are faced with is to find the optimal application schedule of maintenance works for a given road section. To solve such problems what-if models such as the road transport investment model (RTIM), the highway economic requirements system (HERS), and the highway development and management tool (HDM-4) are widely used to predict the consequences of different maintenance options.

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  • Analyzing the scientific literature via the approaches commonly used for this type of research in different databases by the IRSST Informathèque and the CSST documentation centre identified peer-reviewed journal articles on nanoparticle toxicity. The literature is covered exhaustively up to summer 2007. Among the main databases and search engines consulted, we should mention MedLine, Toxline, PubMed, Inspec, Coppernic, Embase, Ntis, Ei, Compendex, SciSearch, Pascal, Alerts, Teoma and Scirus.

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