It is a commonplace that the characteristic virtue of Englishmen is their power of sustained practical activity,
and their characteristic vice a reluctance to test the quality of that activity by reference to principles. They are
incurious as to theory, take fundamentals for granted, and are more interested in the state of the roads than in
their place on the map.
Several approaches have been described for the automatic unsupervised acquisition of patterns for information extraction. Each approach is based on a particular model for the patterns to be acquired, such as a predicate-argument structure or a dependency chain. The effect of these alternative models has not been previously studied. In this paper, we compare the prior models and introduce a new model, the Subtree model, based on arbitrary subtrees of dependency trees.
A new account of parameter setting during grammatical acquisition is presented in terms of Generalized Categorial G r a m m a r embedded in a default inheritance hierarchy, providing a natural partial ordering on the setting of parameters. Experiments show that several experimentally effective learners can be defined in this framework. Ew)lutionary simulations suggest that a lea.rner with default initial settings for parameters will emerge, provided that learning is memory limited and the environment of linguistic adaptation contains an appropriate language. ...
The paper presents the general design and the f i r s t results of a research project whose long term goal is to develop and implement ALICE, an experimental system capable of augmenting i t s knowledge base by processing natural language texts. ALICE (an acronym for Automatic Learning and Inference Computerized Engine) is an attempt to model the cognitive processes that occur in humans when they learn a series of descriptive texts and reason about what they have learned.
Motivated by psycholinguistic ﬁndings that eye gaze is tightly linked to human language production, we developed an unsupervised approach based on translation models to automatically learn the mappings between words and objects on a graphic display during human machine conversation. The experimental results indicate that user eye gaze can provide useful information to establish such mappings, which have important implications in automatically acquiring and interpreting user vocabularies for conversational systems.
A system, WOLFIE, that acquires a mapping of words to their semantic representation is presented and a preliminary evaluation is performed. Tree least general generalizations (TLGGs) of the representations of input sentences are performed to assist in determining the representations of individual words in the sentences. The best guess for a meaning of a word is the T L G G which overlaps with the highest percentage of sentence representations in which that word appears. Some promising experimental results on a non-artificial data set are presented. ...
Within the framework of translation knowledge acquisition from WWW news sites, this paper studies issues on the effect of cross-language retrieval of relevant texts in bilingual lexicon acquisition from comparable corpora. We experimentally show that it is quite effective to reduce the candidate bilingual term pairs against which bilingual term correspondences are estimated, in terms of both computational complexity and the performance of precise estimation of bilingual term correspondences.
As the acquisition problem of bilingual lists of terminological expressions is formidable, it is worthwhile to investigate methods to compile such lists as automatically as possible. In this paper we discuss experimental results for a number of methods, which operate on corpora of previously translated texts. K e y w o r d s : parallel corpora, tagging, terminology acquisition.
From the early 1970s to mid-1990s, positron emission tomography (PET)
as a diagnostic imaging modality had been for the most part used in experimental
research. Clinical PET started only a decade ago. 82Rb-RbCl and
18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug administration
in 1989 and 1994, respectively, for clinical PET imaging. Reimbursement
by Medicare was approved in 1995 for 82Rb-PET myocardial
perfusion imaging and for 18F-FDG PET for various oncologic indications
in 1999. Currently several more PET procedures are covered for
This volume is the first of a series on “Physical Techniques in the Study of Art, Archaeology
and Cultural Heritage”. It follows a successful earlier publication by Elsevier (Radiation
in Art and Archaeometry), also produced by the editors of this book, Dr David Bradley
(Department of Physics, University of Surrey) and Professor Dudley Creagh (Director of
the Cultural Heritage Research Centre, University of Canberra).
Design guidelines for predicting the axial capacity of piles in sand have
long been the source of considerable debate due to the geotechnical profession’s
inadequate understanding of pile behavior. Analytical studies, alone, cannot resolve
the uncertainties in axial capacity predictions due to the complex nature of
pile behavior in sand. This chapter presents some of the factors which occur during
installation and loading of pipe piles in sand, along with their potential impact
on axial capacity....
Effective new treatments of heart disease are based on a refined understanding of
cellular function and the heart's response to environmental stresses. Not surprisingly
therefore, the field of experimental cardiology has experienced a phase of rapid exponential
growth during the last decade. The acquisition of new knowledge has been so
fast that textbooks of cardiology or textbooks of cardiovascular physiology are often
hard-pressed to keep up with the most important conceptual advances.
Cognition encompasses the scientific study of the human mind and how it
processes information; it focuses on one of the most difficult of all mysteries
that humans have addressed. The mind is an enormously complex system
holding a unique position in science: by necessity, we must use the mind to
study itself, and so the focus of study and the instrument used for study are
recursively linked. The sheer tenacity of human curiosity has in our own lifetimes
brought answers to many of the most challenging scientific questions we
have had the ambition to ask.
As the web grows larger, knowledge acquisition from the web has gained increasing attention. In this paper, we propose using web search clickthrough logs to learn semantic categories. Experimental results show that the proposed method greatly outperforms previous work using only web search query logs. sition in both precision and recall. We cast semantic category acquisition from search logs as the task of learning labeled instances from few labeled seeds. To our knowledge this is the ﬁrst study that exploits search clickthrough logs for semantic category learning....