This book focuses on the basic electrochemical applications of DNA in various areas, from basic principles to the most recent discoveries. The book comprises theoretical and experimental analysis of various properties of nucleic acids, research methods, and some promising applications.
Data of unknown quality are useless! All laboratory measurements contain experimental error.
It is necessary to determine the magnitude of the accuracy and reliability in your measurements. Then you can make a judgment about their usefulness.
Replicates - two or more determinations on the same sample Example 3-1: One student measures Fe (III) concentrations six times. The results are listed below: 19.4, 19.5, 19. 6, 19.8, 20.1, 20.3 ppm (parts per million) 6 replicates = 6 measurements The "middle" or "central" value for a group of results: Mean: average or arithmetic mean
Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. EMG may be used clinically for the diagnosis of neuromuscular problems and for assessing biomechanical and motor control deficits and other functional disorders. Furthermore, it can be used as a control signal for interfacing with orthotic and/or prosthetic devices or other rehabilitation assists.
Nearly a decade has passed since the publication of the first edition. Many
instructors have used the first edition to teach master's and Ph.D. students. Based
on their feedback and our own teaching experience, it became clear that we
needed to revise the book to make it more accessible to a larger audience, including
upper-level undergraduates. To this end, we have expanded and reorganized
the early chapters in the second edition. For example, our book now provides
a self-contained presentation of regression analysis (Sections 1.4-1.
Due to the unavoidable nonbiological variations accompanying many
experiments, it is imperative to consider a way of unravelling the functional
interaction structure of a cellular network (e.g. signalling cascades or gene
networks) by using the qualitative information of time-series experimental
data instead of computation through the measured absolute values.
Failure of locking plate fixation due to varus collapse is a common problem for the elderly population who have osteoporotic bone with comminuted fractures. However, it is possible to increase the stability and the stiffness of the fixation system by using intramedullary fibular graft. This study compares the effectiveness of the augmented versus non-augmented locking plate fixation under clinically relevant cyclic loading. Nine pairs of cadaveric humeri were utilized with one side fixated using the augmented system and the other using the non-augmented one.
This paper discusses sampling strategies for building a dependency-analyzed corpus and analyzes them with different kinds of corpora. We used the Kyoto Text Corpus, a dependency-analyzed corpus of newspaper articles, and prepared the IPAL corpus, a dependency-analyzed corpus of example sentences in dictionaries, as a new and different kind of corpus. The experimental results revealed that the length of the test set controlled the accuracy and that the longest-ﬁrst strategy was good for an expanding corpus, but this was not the case when constructing a corpus from scratch. ...
The unique practical properties of adsorption have promoted its extensive
use in genetic analysis. The disadvantages of adsorption with respect to covalent
immobilization are mainly that (1) nucleic acids may be readily desorbed
from the substrate, and (2) base moieties may be unavailable for hybridization
if they are bonded to the substrate in multiple sites . However, the
electrochemical detection strategy based on the intrinsic oxidation of DNA
requires the DNA to be adsorbed in close contact with the electrochemical
substrate by multi-point attachment.
This study uses what Cresswell (2003) refers to as a ‘mixed methods approach’, one that combines
quantitative and qualitative data collection and a ‘sequential explanatory strategy’ in which the
collection and analysis of the quantitative data is followed by the collection and analysis of the
qualitative data (p 215).
As currently taught, the introductory course in analytical chemistry emphasizes
quantitative (and sometimes qualitative) methods of analysis coupled with a heavy
dose of equilibrium chemistry. Analytical chemistry, however, is more than equilib-
rium chemistry and a collection of analytical methods; it is an approach to solving
chemical problems. Although discussing different methods is important, that dis-
cussion should not come at the expense of other equally important topics.
The Laboratory Gas Burner Tirrill or Bunsen burners provide a ready source of heat in the chemistry laboratory. In general, since chemical reactions proceed faster at elevated temperatures, the use of heat enables the experimenter to accomplish many experiments more quickly than would be possible at room temperature. The burner illustrated in Fig. 1.1 is typical of the burners used in most general chemistry laboratories.
Figure 1.1 The Bunsen burner.
Hottest part of the flame (800°C) Violet outer cone Pale-blue middle cone Dark-blue inner cone
Tham khảo sách 'heat transfer theoretical analysis, experimental investigations and industrial systems_2', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
Our results generally showed that in the investigated microbial community
autotrophic component was dominant over the heterotrophic component during the winter
season, while dominance of heterotrophic component in the microbial community was
observed during the warmer seasons. Further, within the prokaryotic community
heterotrophic prokaryotes were mostly dominant throughout the studied area.
A wide range of issues related to analysis of gas turbines and their engineering applications are considered in the book. Analytical and experimental methods are employed to identify failures and quantify operating conditions and efficiency of gas turbines. Gas turbine engine defect diagnostic and condition monitoring systems, operating conditions of open gas turbines, reduction of jet mixing noise, recovery of exhaust heat from gas turbines, appropriate materials and coatings, ultra micro gas turbines and applications of gas turbines are discussed.
Numerous authors proposed chapters on their work, and those presented here are the
fruit of those proposals. As editor of this book, it has been my pleasure to collaborate
with these many, fine contributing scientists. This text brings forth a great amount of
fresh information on the biogeography and ecology of poorly known taxa and
landscapes, and explores biogeographic processes not previously studied. The
assembled work is an anthology of issues in modern biogeography, with topics
ranging across regional to global spatial scales, and ecological to evolutionary
The aim of the study was to investigate the crystallization kinetics and solidification
behaviour of Fe60Co8Mo5Zr10W2B15 bulk glass forming alloy. The solidification
behaviour in near-equilibrium and non-equilibrium cooling conditions was studied.
The eutectic and peritectic reactions were found to exist in the solidification
sequence of the alloy. The bulk metallic glass formation was achieved by using two
methods: quenching from the liquid state and quenching from the semi-state.
DISCRETE-SIGNAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN- P1:Electronic circuit analysis and design projects often involve time-domain
and frequency-domain characteristics that are difÞcult to work with using
the traditional and laborious mathematical pencil-and-paper methods of
former eras. This is especially true of certain nonlinear circuits and sys-
tems that engineering students and experimenters may not yet be com-
There are many books written about statistics, some brief, some detailed, some humorous, some
colorful, and some quite dry. Each of these texts is designed for a specific audience. Too often, texts
about statistics have been rather theoretical and intimidating for those not practicing statistical
analysis on a routine basis. Thus, many engineers and scientists, who need to use statistics much
more frequently than calculus or differential equations, lack sufficient knowledge of the use of
The book "Wind Tunnels and Experimental Fluid Dynamics Research" is comprised of 33 chapters divided in five sections. The first 12 chapters discuss wind tunnel facilities and experiments in incompressible flow, while the next seven chapters deal with building dynamics, flow control and fluid mechanics. Third section of the book is dedicated to chapters discussing aerodynamic field measurements and real full scale analysis (chapters 20-22).
The Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of 2005 requires the President’s
Working Group on Financial Markets (PWG) to perform an analysis regarding the long-
term availability and affordability of insurance for terrorism risk, including group life
coverage; and coverage for chemical, nuclear, biological, and radiological events; and to
submit a report of its findings to Congress by September 30, 2006.