Experimental psychology

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  • Dreams puzzled early man, Greek philosophers spun elaborate theories to explain human memory and perception, Descartes postulated that the brain was filled with "animal spirits," and psychology was officially deemed a "science" in the 19th century. In this Fifth Edition, B.R. Hergenhahn demonstrates that most of the concerns of contemporary psychologists are manifestations of themes that have been part of psychology for hundreds-or even thousands-of years.

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  • For most of the relatively short history of scientific psychology the mere idea of an experimental existential psychology would have been considered oxymoronic—in fact, such a juxtaposition of experimental and existential psychology was probably never even considered at all.

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  • After the domination of behaviourism in Anglo-American psychology during the middle of the century, the impression has been left, reflected in the many texts on research design, that the experimental method is the central tool of psychological research. In fact, a glance through journals will illuminate a wide array of datagathering instruments in use outside the experimental laboratory and beyond the field experiment.

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  • This paper raises concerns that natural language front ends for computer systems can limit a researcher's scope of thinking, yield inappropriately complex systems, and exaggerate public fear of computers. Alternative modes of computer use are suggested and the role of psychologically oriented controlled experimentation is emphasized. Research methods and recent experimental results are briefly reviewed.

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  • In this paradoxical universe the pursuit to discover its mysteries is limitless. The more we know, the more humble we become in the face of what we don’t and cannot know. There are innumerable ways and means for investigating and acquiring knowledge. Amongst these, there are disciplines of objective, experimentally verifiable sciences about which man naturally wants to know more and more. Why? How? Where? When? of everything -he keeps on wondering and inquiring about.

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  • This book is intended to provide an overview of the pharmacology of neurotransmitter release. Neurotransmitter release initiates synaptic transmission, the major mechanism by which neurons communicate with each other and with effector cells.

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  • A Philadelphian had been talking with my mother of North and South, and had alluded to the engagement between the Essex and the Arkansas, on the Mississippi, as a brilliant victory for the Federal navy. My mother protested, at once; said that she and her sister Miriam, and several friends, had been witnesses, from the levee, to the fact that the Confederates had fired and abandoned their own ship when the machinery broke down, after two shots had been exchanged: the Federals, cautiously turning the point, had then captured but a smoking hulk.

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  • Economics - to the great dismay of economists - is merely a branch of psychology. It deals with individual behaviour and with mass behaviour. Many of its practitioners sought to disguise its nature as a social science by applying complex mathematics where common sense and direct experimentation would have yielded far better results. The outcome has been an embarrassing divorce between economic theory and its subjects. The economic actor is assumed to be constantly engaged in the rational pursuit of self interest. This is not a realistic model - merely a useful approximation.

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  • This Handbook has been designed to assist students as well as professionals in the behavioral and biological sciences to understand and apply the principles and methods of experimental research. The Handbook is comprehensive but is written in a concise, outline format. This allows a considerable amount of material to be presented in an explicit, compact form that facilitates the perception and understanding of the hierarchical and parallel relationships among concepts. As a result, learning, retrieving, and applying the information should be greatly enhanced....

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  • The great Italian Gestalt psychologist Vittorio Benussi was one of the first to be initiated into the mysteries of experimental psychology by Witasek. Benussi was influenced in particular by the topic of Witasek's habilitation thesis, which had defended the view that optical illusions cannot be illusions of judgment, since the same illusion can be present even when we deliberately do not allow our judgments to be misled by the appearances.

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  • Another salient emotion in moving experiences is the feeling of inspi- ration. The word “inspired” means, in its etymological sense, to be filled with breath, spirit, and life. Thus, the emotion of learning at its most powerful is the feeling of increased vitality as we realize our growing capacity to perceive and act. This particular quality of experience is addressed indirectly, at best, in mainstream psychological traditions. For example, the motivation construct of goals...

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  • Cognition encompasses the scientific study of the human mind and how it processes information; it focuses on one of the most difficult of all mysteries that humans have addressed. The mind is an enormously complex system holding a unique position in science: by necessity, we must use the mind to study itself, and so the focus of study and the instrument used for study are recursively linked. The sheer tenacity of human curiosity has in our own lifetimes brought answers to many of the most challenging scientific questions we have had the ambition to ask.

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  • It is just eleven years since Kinglake passed away, and his life has not yet been separately memorialized. A few years more, and the personal side of him would be irrecoverable, though by personality, no less than by authorship, he made his contemporary mark. When a tomb has been closed for centuries, the effaced lineaments of its tenant can be re-coloured only by the idealizing hand of genius, as Scott drew Claverhouse, and Carlyle drew Cromwell. But, to the biographer of the lately dead, men have a right to say, as Saul said to the Witch of Endor, "Call up Samuel!" In your study of...

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  • We are reminded daily of the uncertainty of human life: for the young and the old, the gay and the grave, the good and the wicked, are subject to death. Young people do not realize this, but it is nevertheless true, and before you are old enough, my children, to understand and lay to heart all that your mother would tell you of her dearly beloved father, she may be asleep with grandma, close beside him in Bellefontaine. An earthly inheritance is highly esteemed among men. For this reason great efforts are made by them to lay up treasures for their children. They know not,...

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  • Witasek was born in Vienna on the 17th of May 1870. Little is known of his background, though the name `Witasek' suggests Croatian origins. He studied in Graz, obtaining his Ph.D. in 1895 and his habilitation - on the nature of optical illusions - in 1899. In the following years, during which he worked selflessly as an unpaid assistant in Meinong's laboratory of experimental psychology, he was employed as a librarian in the University of Graz.

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  • As the Internet has changed communication, commerce, and the distribution of information, so too it is changing psychological research. Psychologists can observe new or rare phenomena online and can do research on traditional psychological topics more efficiently, enabling them to expand the scale and scope of their research. Yet these opportunities entail risk both to research quality and to human subjects. Internet research is inherently no more risky than traditional observational, survey or experimental methods.

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  • This memo defines the publication stream for RFCs from the Internet Research Task Force. Most documents undergoing this process will come from IRTF Research Groups, and it is expected that they will be published as Informational or Experimental RFCs by the RFC Editor. Status of this Memo This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes. This document is a product of the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF). The IRTF publishes the results of Internet-related research and development activities.

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  • Having visited the South for the benefit of my health, I arrived at Savannah, in Georgia, on the 10th of February, 1834; and, indulging the common inquisitiveness of a stranger about the place, was informed that just one hundred and one years had elapsed since the first settlers were landed there, and the city laid out. Replies to other inquiries, and especially a perusal of McCall's History of the State, excited a lively interest in the character of General OGLETHORPE, who was the founder of the Colony, and in the measures which he pursued for its advancement, defence, and prosperity.

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  • When Edward Temple was about eight or nine years old he was afflicted with a disorder of the eyes. It was so severe, and his sight was naturally so delicate, that the surgeon felt some apprehensions lest the boy should become totally blind. He therefore gave strict directions to keep him in a darkened chamber, with a bandage over his eyes. Not a ray of the blessed light of heaven could be suffered to visit the poor lad. This was a sad thing for Edward. It was just the same as if there were to be no more sunshine, nor moonlight, nor glow of the...

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  • Witasek is described as having been particularly musical and is reported to have spent many hours playing music together with Meinong. It was indeed his passion for music which first brought him to study in Graz: he had been provoked by Stumpf's Tonpsychologie to take an interest in the psychology of music and was attracted by the possibilities promised by the experimental psychology laboratory which had been so recently established by Meinong. At that stage the future of the laboratory was still uncertain and it is Witasek - who was already the effective head...

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