Problems of machine translation have been investigated in the Soviet Union since 1955.1 A number of groups are carrying out theoretical and experimental work in the area of machine translation. In the Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Technology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (ITM and VT) dictionaries and codes of rules (algorithms) have been compiled for machine translation from English, Chinese, and Japanese into Russian; and a GermanRussian algorithm is being worked out.
The Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of 2005 requires the President’s
Working Group on Financial Markets (PWG) to perform an analysis regarding the long-
term availability and affordability of insurance for terrorism risk, including group life
coverage; and coverage for chemical, nuclear, biological, and radiological events; and to
submit a report of its findings to Congress by September 30, 2006.
Biodiversity is fundamental to sustaining life, providing
critical ecosystem services such as food provisioning, water
purification, flood and drought control, nutrient cycling, and
climate regulation, amongst many others. These services
are essential to support human well-being and economic
growth. Yet despite the significant economic, social and
cultural values of biodiversity and ecosystem services,
biodiversity worldwide is being lost, and in some areas at
an accelerating rate.
While various aspects of syntactic structure have been shown to bear on the determination of phraselevel prosody, the text-to-speech field has lacked a robust working system to test the possible relations between syntax and prosody. We describe an implemented system which uses the deterministic parser Fidditch to create the input for a set of prosody rules.
Several important tendencies have been emerging recently in the NLP community. First of all, work on corpora tends to become the norm, which constitutes a fruitful convergence area between taskdriven, computational approaches and descriptive linguistic ones. On corpora validation becomes more and more important for theoretical models, and the accuracy of these models can be evaluated either with regard to their ability to account for the reality of a given corpus (pursuing descriptive aims), either with regard to their ability to analyse it accurately (pursuing operational aims). ...
At the end of world War II many physicists who had been mobilized for the war effort returned to university work and to pure research; a great number of them had worked on nuclear problems and were anxious to resume investigations in this field.
Since this book was first published in 1993, the Advanced Paediatric Life Support
(APLS) concept and courses have gone a great way towards their aim of bringing simple
guidelines for the management of ill and injured children to front-line doctors and
Over the years an increasing number of experts have contributed to the work and we
extend our thanks both to them and also to our instructors who unceasingly provide
helpful feedback.The Advanced Paediatric Life Support Course is now well established
in several countries outside the United Kingdom.
Numerous authors proposed chapters on their work, and those presented here are the
fruit of those proposals. As editor of this book, it has been my pleasure to collaborate
with these many, fine contributing scientists. This text brings forth a great amount of
fresh information on the biogeography and ecology of poorly known taxa and
landscapes, and explores biogeographic processes not previously studied. The
assembled work is an anthology of issues in modern biogeography, with topics
ranging across regional to global spatial scales, and ecological to evolutionary
Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) has been an important research area in
last decade. When the robot has become increasingly more flexible, they were
useful in a variety of robot and human applications are expected in
teract very closely. Therefore becomes necessary to understand the nature
human-computer interaction to information tools and techniques can be developed to
allows humans and robots to work together seamlessly, strong and natural.
Research on human-machine interaction are diverse and include a variety of topics....
The point of departure of the commitment to this topic area on the part of The Norwegian
Board of Technology is an increasing portion of elderly people in the population,
development of new communication, security and information technology, comprehensive
municipal construction of health care housing and shortage of health care personnel. The
consensus conference dealt with both elderly people’s use of ICT as a means of
communication and the use of ICT in housing for the elderly (smart-home technology).
The order of writing presented here highlights the importance of your results for defining
the focus of your article. You should define the focus of your article based on the evidence
you have. This way you can set the focus of your article relatively early and avoid
unnecessary re-working when writing up the theory and other elements of the text.
It is sensible to start writing an article by outlining the subject matter and content by a few
bullet points or key words. This phase will act later as an aid in writing the introduction.
After outlining the...
Putting the quantum into magnetism might, at first sight, seem like stating
the obvious; the exchange interactions leading to collective magnetic behavior
are, after all, a pure quantum effect. Yet, for many phenomena in magnetism
this underlying quantum nature may be safely ignored at least on the qualitative
level. The investigation of magnetic systems where quantum effects
play a dominant role and have to be accounted for in detail has, over the
last decades, evolved to be a field of very active research....
This book follows in the footsteps of two previous efforts—Snakes: Ecology
and Evolutionary Biology (1987) and Snakes: Ecology and Behavior
(1993)—to provide established and new researchers with a current synopsis
of snake ecology. In the preface to each of these earlier works, one of us
(R. A. S.) admitted that he had erred in assuming that another “Biology of
the Serpentes” book was not worth tackling. And after the fi rst two books,
we thought that perhaps yet another book was not needed—we were wrong
Chaos and the quantum mechanical behaviour of classically chaotic systems have been
attracting increasing attention. Initially, there was perhaps more emphasis on the
theoretical side, but this is now being backed up by experimental work to an increasing
extent. The words 'Quantum Chaos' are often used these days, usually with an
undertone of unease, the reason being that, in contrast to classical chaos, quantum chaos
is ill defined; some authors say it is non-existent. So, why is it that an increasing
number of physicists are devoting their efforts to a subject so fuzzily defined?...
· Select an institution to carry out the initial accounting work. While in the long run
environmental accounts are likely to come under the purview of those responsible for
national accounting, often those groups are unwilling to initiate the work because it is
perceived as too experimental. Instead, initial work may be carried out by environment
departments, government-affiliated research groups, or other players who have a strong
stake in the outcome but take less risk by putting their name on experimental work.
Two questions are addressed: why cinema technology was
introduced in the mid-1890s rather than earlier or later; and why cinema-
going became popular only with a lag – a decade after the technology
was available. Both issues can potentially be affected by changes in
supply or changes in demand.
These issues are worthwhile to examine, because they can help us
get insight into how new consumer goods and services emerge, how the
process works by which certain new goods become successful and are
widely adopted while others will disappear and are forgotten forever.
Such jobs would then be gone, to be replaced by jobs requiring much more
sophisticated mathematical training. The mathematics needed for these
machines, as was case with engines, has been the main impediment to actual
wide-scale implementation of such robotic mechanisms. Recently, it has
become clear that the key mathematics is available, (the mathematics of
algebraic and geometric topology, developed over the last 80 - 90 years),
and we have begun to make dramatic progress in creating the programs
needed to make such machines work.
While the links between ICT and environmental outcomes are becoming clearer, there is no separate statistical field that links the two. Nevertheless, some data are available from official statistical sources, from analytical work and from product life cycle studies.
This report suggests a conceptual framework for the new statistical field “ICT and the environment” based on an existing OECD framework for information society statistics. Sources of official data to populate the framework are investigated and some relevant work has been identified.
This book is dedicated to a wonderful person, Rimma Vladimirovna Golovnya, Doctor of Chemistry. Professor R.V. Golovnya was a leading scientist in the field of gas chromatography and flavochemistry and worked fruitfully for many years in organic, analytical, and physical chemistry.
Being students, we were fortunate to enjoy lectures by academicians A.N. Nesmeyanov, P.A. Rehbinder, and V.1. Spitsin, professors of the Faculty of Chemistry at Moscow State University. The supervisor of my post-graduate training, academician N.N.