Xem 1-20 trên 20 kết quả Export financing
  • Welcome to the second edition of the Trade Finance Guide: A Quick Reference for U.S. Exporters. This guide is designed to help U.S. companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), learn the basic fundamentals of trade finance so that they can turn their export opportunities into actual sales and achieve the ultimate goal of getting paid—especially on time—for those sales. This guide provides general information about common techniques of export financing.

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  • On this issue the review drew from best practices in the individual sectors examined. The first issue in O&M arrangements has already been mentioned: the need for clear ownership of the infrastructure and accountability for who will operate and maintain the project. The third issue, which is not always elaborated as much, is the need for a formal backstopping arrangement if the community is expected to carry out O&M. A good system is needed to give the community support when it has problems and when issues arise, for example the issue of mobilization of recurrent financing....

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  • In this chapter, the learning objectives are: Explain the promises and risks associated with exporting, identify the steps managers can take to improve their firm's export performance, identify information sources and government programs that exist to help exporters, recognize the basic steps involved in export financing, describe how countertrade can be used to facilitate exporting.

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  • There is a widespread concern that, in some parts of the world, govern- ments are unable to exercise effective authority.When governments fail, more sinister forces thrive: warlords, arms smugglers, narcotics enter- prises, kidnap gangs, terrorist networks, armedmilitias.Why do govern- ments fail? This book explores an old idea that has returned to prominence: that authority, effectiveness, accountability and respon- siveness is closely related to the ways in which governments are financed.

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  • Making the connection; identifying international markets; foreign market entry; the export transaction; export financing; transporting goods internationally; strategic alliances & foreign investment opportunities. Includes an exporter's directory section consisting of: small business development centers; international trade contacts in other Federal agencies; state government international trade resources; foreign embassies in the U.S.

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  • The Government in May 2011 approved the Medium Term Plan (MTP), which is expected to drive economic growth over the next five years, 2011-15. The Plan will guide the formulation of National Budgets and other social-economic policies of the State. The MTP requires US$9 billion to be implemented over the period 2011-15 and funding is expected from the domestic and external sources including reliance on Public Private Partnership (PPP).

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  • The Committee evaluated the impact of its regulatory regimes on trade finance for low income countries. For those countries, confirmed letters of credit are of specific importance. Confirmed letters of credit provide exporters with additional protection against any losses incurred from importers’ and issuing banks’ failure to meet their obligations of payments.

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  • The United States and other industrialized countries have committed to financial assistance for environmental initiatives through several multilateral agreements (e.g., the Montreal Protocol (1987), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (1994), and the Copenhagen Accord (2009)).

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  • The growth of migration from Turkey began during the 1960s and 1970s with Germany as the primary destination of these emigrants, as it was for many Portuguese. The Turkish Government soon became aware of the importance of remittances as a source of foreign exchange and intensified its efforts to send more national workers abroad (Sayari, 1986). Turkey is a major recipient of migrant remittances, which represent almost 17 per cent of Turkey’s exports of merchandise and far surpass any ODA and FDI that the country receives. Remittances have become a key focus of the Turkish ...

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  • Historically, savings banks have been the first intermediaries to secure the savings and invest- ments of the local population, which they mobilised to reinvest and develop their surround- ing communities. Building on their decentralised network, their deep knowledge of the local needs, specificities and actors, they naturally grew as the privileged financial partner for local and regional economic projects. They have built business relationships with major actors of the local development and growth.

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  • There is substantial evidence that the independent design profession contributes directly to economic wealth and the creation of employment and indirectly through the economic benefits it provides to business. These indirect benefits were not investigated as part of the study, but other evidence exists to support this (Walsh et al 1992). In the UK, the design profession contributes to exports, but only to established European and American markets.

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  • Trade finance has received special attention during the financial crisis as one of the potential culprits for the great trade collapse. Several researchers have used micro level data to establish the link between trade finance and trade, especially so during the financial crisis, and have found diverting results. This paper analyses the effect of trade credit on trade on a macro level through a whole cycle. We employ Berne Union data on export credit insurance, the most extensive dataset on trade credits available at the moment, for the period of 2005- 2011.

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  • A standard, commercial letter of credit (LC) is a document issued mostly by a financial institution, used primarily in trade finance, which usually provides an irrevocable payment undertaking. The letter of credit can also be source of payment for a transaction, meaning that redeeming the letter of credit will pay an exporter. Letters of credit are used primarily in international trade transactions of significant value, for deals between a supplier in one country and a customer in another.

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  • The strong growth of credit in both cases, however, does not mean that domestic credit was the only source for finance of enterprises. In both cases, retained savings by the enterprises played an important role (in China today, these retained savings are an important factor to explain the high national saving rate). However, it can well be argued that the strong credit creation is a necessary condition for profit growth in an economy: Only if credit creation helps to maintain a high level of aggregate demand, firms will be able to make sufficient profits in the aggregate.

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  • Against this backdrop, and assuming that policy actions at the European and Member-State level will continue to rein in the sovereign-debt crisis, thus allowing an easing of financing conditions and a return of confidence, the EU economy is expected to stabilise at the turn of the year and to embark on a moderate recovery path thereafter. With strong internal headwinds holding back domestic demand, net exports are likely to remain the most important growth driver next year.

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  • In this paper we review the fiscal evolution of China and Russia, asking how the process of creating a separate, tax-financed public sector in the two countries differed. We observe that the size of China's budget sector was consistently smaller than in Russia and that budget decentralization was consistently greater. We see both pros and cons in China's decentralization. Local governments that were allowed to keep marginal increases in local tax revenue had incentives to pursue growth-supporting policies, including support for foreign investment and export-oriented production.

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  • Please visit your local Small Business Development Centers, SCORE locations, Women’s Business Centers, Export Assistance Centers and Veterans Business Outreach Centers. These resources provide professional business counselors who can offer free one- on-one counseling and business training classes. When you’re looking for small business financing, go to a lender that can offer the option of an SBA-backed loan. We are continuing to streamline the paperwork on SBA loans to help our lending partners support your access to small business capital.

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  • This 18 day tour gives you insight into the business, political, educational and cultural diversity of India. You will visit Delhi, Agra, home to the magnificent Taj Mahal, Jaipur, the renowned ‘pink city’, and Mumbai, the business hub of India. Engage in student forums at partner universities, join the Great Debate, and play in one of our Twenty20 cricket challenges. Sessions with representatives of Indian industry and government also contribute to this tour’s standing as a career enhancing and uniquely fulfilling experience.

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  • The UK is an open economy and an active and successful international trader and investor. But the UK’s reliance on debt-financed consumer and government spending, and on the financial sector, has driven growing imbalances in the UK economy. According to the OECD, by 2007 the UK had the largest structural budget deficit in the G7 group of countries. The current account deficit was around 2¾% of GDP in 2007, a figure that was offset by a 2¼% surplus on trade in financial services.

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  • In this chapter, you will learn how a firm can achieve its objectives through exporting, importing, and countertrade. You will also: Understand the ways in which a firm finances its import and export activities, explore various contractual and investment entry modes, and examine the strategic factors in selecting an entry mode.

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