Xem 1-20 trên 55 kết quả Exposure sources
  • Exposure science differs from past approaches in the environmental sciences, because, instead of beginning with an assumed source of pollution and then trying to find out who or what may be affected, exposure science works from both directions — not just from the source but also backward from the receptor.

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  • The NCRP has long recognized the need for a clear assessment of the magnitude of doses from various sources of radiation to which the population of the U.S. is exposed. In anticipation of the need to gather data for input into this process, five assessment committees, each addressing a different source category, were established. NCRP reports assessing exposures from natural background, consumer products, nuclear power generation, and diagnostic medical radiation have been published (NCRP, 1987a,b,c,d, NCRP, 1989)....

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  • •Similarity –Resemblance between the source and recipient of the message •Familiarity –Knowledge of the source through repeated or prolonged exposure •Likeability –Affection for the source resulting from physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits

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  • The high tech bubble was in°ated by myths of astronomical Internet tra±c growth rates. Yet although these myths were false, Internet tra±c was increasing very rapidly, close to doubling each year since 1997. Moreover, it continues growing close to this rate. This rapid growth re°ects a poorly understood combination of many feedback loops operating on di®erent time scales. Evidence about past and current growth rates and their sources is presented, together with speculations about the future.

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  • The international significance of research into the sources, behaviour, fate, and effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is exemplified by the Stockholm Convention for which the host organisation is the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Following extensive negotiation, it was adopted on 22 May 2001, entered into force 90 days after the 50th party had ratified it on 17 May 2004, and by late 2008 there were over 180 participants (http://chm.pops.int/).

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  • It is evident that insecticides have been used to boost food production to a considerable extent and to control vectors of disease. However, these advantages that are of great economic benefits sometimes come with disadvantages when subjected to critical environmental and human health considerations. Many insecticides are newly synthesized whose health and environmental implications are unknown.

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  • The NCRP has long mcog&ed the need for a clear assessment of the magnitude of doses from various souroes of radiation to which the population of the U.S. is ocpo9ed. In anticipation of the need to gather data for input into this process five as&sament committees, each adhing a different source category, wem established, first in 1971 and then reestablished in 1986. NCRP reports assessing exposum from natural background, consumer products, and nuclear power gene ation have recently been published (NCRP, 1987% 1987b. 1987~)...

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  • The Group recognised the difficulties involved in setting limit values for particles when the epidemiological studies had not demonstrated a no-effects threshold. However, the Group felt that limit values could be recommended at levels at which public health effects at the population level were likely to be small. On this basis the Group initially considered ranges of daily values of 30-100µgm-3 and 15- 40µgm-3 as an annual average.

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  • Over the last ten years or so, interest in outdoor ambient air pollution monitoring has tended to move away from carbon monoxide and towards other pollutants such as NOx and particulate matter. This is due to the limited direct health impacts associated with exposure to modest amounts of carbon monoxide. There has also been a gerneral decrease in the ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide measured in recent years as a result of improved vehicle technology.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

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  • This report has been prepared as a result of a request to the National Council on Radiation Protedion and Measurements (NCRP) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In recent years, nuclear utilities have identified the potential for a limited number of employees to come in contact with microscopic particles that are radioactive. These particles have been given the generic name, independent of their source and particular chemical and radioactive content, of "hot particles."

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  • The coincidence of multiple inequities in health—and as an interlinked concept, the multifaceted nature of poverty—make for a very complex field. Those living at the margins of society suffer numerous and overlapping inequities in health, in voice, in agency, in living conditions. Often, their poverty and ill health keep them in a life of perpetual quicksand. Just as an intervention might spare a child from malaria only to have her die a year later of measles, a policy change in the health sector might be successful in eliminating one source of inequity (e.g. access to care)...

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  • The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) published Report No. 48, Radiation Protection for Medical and Allied Health Personnel in 1976. Many changes in medical practice and procedures involving ionizing radiation have occurred in the intervening 13 years. As a result, the Council determined to prepare this new report to supersede NCRP Report No. 48. The primary objective of this new report is to update the material to include new radiation sources used in medicine.

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  • an effort to ensure the wise use of taxpayers’ money, the federal government has undertaken major initiatives to evaluate the performance and results of federally funded programs, including research and development (R&D) programs. The initiatives include the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART), developed in 2002. The latter was designed in the context of “performance budgeting” and “performance measurement” and focused on evaluating the efficiency of programs.

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  • The majority of lead contaminated sites in the Blacksmith Institute’s database are found in Africa, South America, South and Southeast Asia, but the problem of lead pollution plagues most developing countries worldwide. Its uses are varied; in Latin America it has often been utilized for ceramic glazing and in other countries leaded gasoline is still used. In the U.S. lead paint is the cause of a majority of lead exposures and such exposures can be expected in most countries since paint pigments using lead were commonly used worldwide up until a few decades ago.

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  • In Austria, particulate matter is measured in agreement with national legislation as Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) at more than 110 sites, whereas PM10 measurements are not yet available. It was assumed that ambient air TSP levels can be attributed to the contribution of local sources and regional background concentrations. Both of them were modelled separately. The starting point for the modelling of local contributions was the availability of a spatially disaggregated emission inventory for nitrogen oxides (NOx).

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  • Exposure  to  third‐parties  (where  the  Port  Authority  has  performed  work  for  other  parties and expects  to be  reimbursed  in  the  future) now  total an estimated $1.6 billion  and  represent  the primary  area  of  cost  escalation  since  the  2008  reforecast.

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  • In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora.

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  • Tritium, the heaviest and only radioactive isotope of hydrogen, is increasing in importance in energy and environmental considerations. This nuclide is widely distributed throughout man's environment because of its ubiquitous form as tritiated water and its persistence in the environment. This report considers and evaluates the available information on tritium in terms of its physical properties, production sources, physical transport, biological behavior, projected future production, waste management, and the long-term dose implications of tritium in the environment....

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  • Our intention was to identify as many areas of school life as possible in order to take them out of the realm of the hidden curriculum and make them parts of the health promotion programme. What takes place without being noticed may become a source of serious risk that may neglect or even impair health. The identified parts of the structure called school are seen as ones that can be influenced within the health promoting schools model programme.

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