Reliable gene-lifestyle interaction studies will yield important evidence for the shaping of personalised
healthcare. Studies need statistical power with adequate environmental exposures and lifestyle
heterogeneity to obtain reliable evidence on the interplay between nurture and nature.
Europe has a historic strength in large epidemiological studies but technology development and
implementation is needed to better ascertain environmental exposure and dietary heterogeneity.
Allergic diseases are characterized by a Th2 inflammatory response involving several
possible modulator factors (genetics and environmental factors), subject-related or antigenrelated
modulators such as adjuvants, solubility in the microenvironment of mucosa, size of
the sensitization agent, mucosa permeability, viral infections, and the greater or lesser
ability of effectors cells to liberate mediators.
Other factors include atmospheric pollution, exposure to tobacco, lifestyle-related diet and
hygiene habits and maternal effects.
Increases in breast cancer risk, relative to how long a
woman has smoked or the number of cigarettes she smoked
a day, have been found in several studies. However, the
relationship between breast cancer and the level of smoking
exposure is not as clear as it is for lung cancer. For example,
people who smoke the least (or for the shortest time) have
the lowest risk of lung cancer, while people who smoke the
most (or for the longest time) have the highest risk. People
who smoke amounts between these two extremes, have
risks that fall between the two extremes.
There are a myriad number of different types of risks that, as individuals, we face
every day that impact human health. Exposure to hazards can result from the natural
and build environments with modulation of this exposure due to other factors such as
our biology (eg. genetics, age, gender and comorbid conditions) and social interactions
(eg. lifestyle choices and our level of risk acceptance). A broad population health
approach includes determinants of health, this is the collective label given to factors
and conditions that are thought to have an influence on health.
This chapter addresses the physiological and emotional components of health and well-
being. It aims to help people become more aware of their internalized frameworks and how
they can be utilized so as to attain and enjoy a healthy outlook on life. In turn this can
influence health-related behaviour and reduce consequently the likelihood of experiencing
illnesses induced by aspects of modern living.