is older than culture, for culture, however inadequately
defined, always presupposes human society, and animals have not
waited for man to teach them their playing. We can safely assert,
even, that human civilization has added no essential feature to
the general idea of play. Animals play just like men. We have
only to watch young dogs to see that all the essentials of human
play are present in their merry gambols. They invite one another
to play by a certain ceremoniousness of attitude and gesture. They
keep to the rule that you shall not bite, or not bite hard, your
In this paper, we present initial experiments in the recognition of deceptive language. We introduce three data sets of true and lying texts collected for this purpose, and we show that automatic classiﬁcation is a viable technique to distinguish between truth and falsehood as expressed in language. We also introduce a method for class-based feature analysis, which sheds some light on the features that are characteristic for deceptive text.
Linguistic knowledge usable for machine translation is always imperfect. We cannot be free from the uncertainty of knowledge we have for machine translation. Especially at the transfer stage of machine translation, the selection of target language expression is rather subjective and optional. Therefore the linguistic contents of machine translation system always fluctuate, and make gradual progress. The system should be designed to allow such constant change and improvements.
This paper describes a compositional semantics for temporal expressions as part of the meaning representation language (MRL) of the JANUS system, a natural language understanding and generation system under joint development by BBN Laboratoires and the Information Sciences Institute. 1 The analysis is based on a higher order intansional logic described in detail in Hinrichs, Ayuso and Scha (1987). Temporal expressions of English are translated into this language as quantifiers over times which bind temporal indices on predicates.
This book is a modern guide to using C++ langugage, including how to apply it to Windows programming. Shows how to write programs for programmers, not computers.
C++ In Action: Industrial-Strength Programming Techniques picks up where the standard tutorial leaves off, providing a fresh perspective on the language for both the novice and seasoned C++ programmer. Focusing on programming technique, this book captures the essence of expression in C++, promoting a methodology that delivers robust, reliable, and elegant code. ...
For 20 years, information extraction has focused on facts expressed in text. In contrast, this paper is a snapshot of research in progress on inferring properties and relationships among participants in dialogs, even though these properties/relationships need not be expressed as facts. For instance, can a machine detect that someone is attempting to persuade another to action or to change beliefs or is asserting their credibility?
Generating referring expressions is a key step in Natural Language Generation. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on generating distinctive referring expressions, that is, referring expressions that uniquely identify their intended referent. While undoubtedly one of their most important functions, referring expressions can be more than distinctive. In particular, descriptive referring expressions – those that provide additional information not required for distinction – are critical to ﬂuent, efﬁcient, well-written text. ...
The interpretation of temporal expressions in text is an important constituent task for many practical natural language processing tasks, including question-answering, information extraction and text summarisation. Although temporal expressions have long been studied in the research literature, it is only more recently, with the impetus provided by exercises like the ACE Program, that attention has been directed to broad-coverage, implemented systems. In this paper, we describe our approach to intermediate semantic representations in the interpretation of temporal expressions. ...
This paper introduces conceptual framework of an ontology for describing linguistic services on network-based language infrastructures. The ontology defines a taxonomy of processing resources and the associated static language resources. It also develops a sub-ontology for abstract linguistic objects such as expression, meaning, and description; these help define functionalities of a linguistic service. The proposed ontology is expected to serve as a solid basis for the interoperability of technical elements in language infrastructures. ...
Since the early Sixties and Seventies it has been known that the regular and context-free languages are characterized by definability in the monadic second-order theory of certain structures. More recently, these descriptive characterizations have been used to obtain complexity results for constraint- and principle-based theories of syntax and to provide a uniform model-theoretic framework for exploring the relationship between theories expressed in disparate formal terms.
We demonstrate an open-source natural language generation engine that produces descriptions of entities and classes in English and Greek from OWL ontologies that have been annotated with linguistic and user modeling information expressed in RDF . We also demonstrate an accompanying plug-in for the Prot´ g´ ontology editor, e e which can be used to create the ontology’s annotations and generate previews of the resulting texts by invoking the generation engine.
Several recent efforts in statistical natural language understanding (NLU) have focused on generating clumps of English words from semantic meaning concepts (Miller et al., 1995; Levin and Pieraccini, 1995; Epstein et al., 1996; Epstein, 1996). This paper extends the IBM Machine Translation Group's concept of fertility (Brown et al., 1993) to the generation of clumps for natural language understanding. The basic underlying intuition is that a single concept may be expressed in English as many disjoint clump of words. ...
The recent approach to language teaching and learning has been focusing on communication as getting things done in the utilitarian sense. However, the core of communication, if it wishes to mean anything significant to the world at all, should be self-expression. The ultimate aim of foreign language teaching, therefore, should be to create individual learners who have their own foreign language personalities and know how to express themselves in the target language.
We investigate how novel English-derived words (anglicisms) are used in a Germanlanguage Internet hip hop forum, and what factors contribute to their uptake.
Because English has established itself as something of a global lingua franca, many languages are currently undergoing a process of introducing new loanwords borrowed from English. However, while the motivations for borrowing are well studied, including e.g.
The noisy channel model approach is successfully applied to various natural language processing tasks. Currently the main research focus of this approach is adaptation methods, how to capture characteristics of words and expressions in a target domain given example sentences in that domain. As a solution we describe a method enlarging the vocabulary of a language model to an almost inﬁnite size and capturing their context information.
Natural Language Generation (NLG) is a way to automatically realize a correct expression in response to a communicative goal. This technology is mainly explored in the fields of machine translation, report generation, dialog system etc. In this paper we have explored the NLG technique for another novel applicationassisting disabled children to take part in conversation. The limited physical ability and mental maturity of our intended users made the NLG approach different from others. We have taken a flexible approach where main emphasis is given on flexibility and usability of the system.
The paper proposes a methodology for dealing with multiword expressions in natural language processing applications. It provides a practically justiﬁed taxonomy of such units, and suggests the ways in which the individual classes can be processed computationally. While the study is currently limited to Polish and English, we believe our ﬁndings can be successfully employed in the processing of other languages, with emphasis on inﬂectional ones.
This paper describes a Web-based English-Chinese concordance system, TotalRecall, developed to promote translation reuse and encourage authentic and idiomatic use in second language writing. We exploited and structured existing highquality translations from the bilingual Sinorama Magazine to build the concordance of authentic text and translation. Novel approaches were taken to provide high-precision bilingual alignment on the sentence, phrase and word levels. A browser-based user interface (UI) is also developed for ease of access over the Internet.
Although the problem of querying a database in natural language has been studied extensively, there has been relatively little work on processing database updates expressed in natural language. To interpret update requests, several linguistic issues must be addressod that do not typically pose difficulties when dealing exclusively with queries. This paper briefly examines some of the linguistic problems encountered, and describes an implemented system that performs simple natural language database update....
This paper describes how a language-planning system can produce natural-language referring expressions that satisfy multiple goals. It describes a formal representation for reasoning about several agents' mutual knowledge using possible-worlds semantics and the general organization of a system that uses the formalism to reason about plans combining physical and linguistic actions at different levels of abstraction.