Xem 1-20 trên 37 kết quả External funds
  • In one way or another, business activity must be financed. Without finance to support their fixed assets and working capital requirements, businesses could not exist. There are three primary sources of finance for companies: ● a cash surplus from operating activities ● new equity funding ● borrowing from bank and non-bank sources. Non-bank sources are mainly investors in the capital markets who subscribe for bonds and other securities issued by companies.

    pdf110p taurus23 25-09-2012 27 16   Download

  • This third edition of The Corporate Finance Handbook is intended for the directors and owners of businesses whose continuing prosperity and growth depend upon putting in place and maintaining an appropriate balance of external funding.

    pdf277p 951847623 09-04-2012 175 99   Download

  • We obtain information from SIF on the social screening activity of SRI funds. SIF pro vides information about the use of screens in eleven screening categories: alcohol, tobacco, gambling, defense/ weapons, animal testing, products/services, environment, human rights, labor relations, employment/equality, and community investment. We also obtain information from SIF on whether social screening is performed in-house or delegated to an external firm.

    pdf314p khanhchilam 29-03-2013 48 10   Download

  • Risk management is an evolving discipline. Several organizations have sought to provide assistance and thought leadership through the development of risk management frameworks and guidance. Much, if not most, of this guidance is focused on traditional operating companies and does not contemplate the externally managed structure of investment companies. As a result, while the guidance these organizations have provided is sound, it typically does not focus on the unique issues faced by funds and their boards of directors.

    pdf70p khanhchilam 29-03-2013 42 9   Download

  • The Asian Development Review is the professional journal of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) that aims to disseminate the results of economic and development research carried out by ADB staff and external scholars. The Review seeks high-quality papers with relevance to policy issues and operational matters done in an empirically-rigorous way. Articles are intended for readership among economists and social scientists in government, private sector, academia, and international organizations.

    pdf130p nhatro75 19-07-2012 59 7   Download

  • » Clear communication facilitates effective risk management. Establishing clear and open lines of communication among interested parties across an organization helps ensure that certain risks do not fall through the cracks and that data and information flowing between business units (including, where relevant, external service providers such as the custodian, fund accountant, and transfer agent) are understood by all to mean the same thing. » Organizational structures and policies themselves can serve as risk controls.

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  • Stocks are not the most important sources of external financing for businesses (figure 1) == Why? Issuing marketable debt and equity securities is not the primary way in which businesses finance their operations (figure 1) == Why? Indirect finance is many times more important than direct finance ((figure 1) == Why? Financial intermediaries are the most important source of external funds (figure 1) == Why?

    ppt22p sony_12 25-06-2013 21 7   Download

  • The Bank, IMF and World Bank participated in a Government Forum organized in March 2011 to discuss the recently approved Strategy for Arrears Clearance. A major conclusion from the workshop was the importance of reaching agreement on a Staff Monitored Program with the IMF as a critical component of the path towards arrears clearance and debt relief and a grandfathering of Zimbabwe by the IDA Executive Board if it is to benefit from the HIPC Initiative.

    pdf9p lenh_hoi_xung 01-03-2013 30 6   Download

  • There has been substantial progress in the development of the government bond market. Key steps include a lengthening of the yield curve, reduction in external exposure and diversification of the investor base. This has been supported by improved macroeconomic conditions, foreign investors entering the fixed rate segment of local currency government debt, and well designed microstructure reforms regarding issuance policy and auction process. As shown below, the government bond market has become more resilient to various risk factors. ...

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  • Recent imperfect capital market theories (e.g., Bernanke and Gertler (1989), Gertler and Gilchrist (1994), Kiyotaki and Moore (1997)) predict that changing credit market conditions can have very di®erent e®ects on small and large ¯rms' risk. Agency costs induced by asymmetry in the infor- mation held by ¯rms and their creditors make it necessary for ¯rms to use collateral when borrowing in the credit markets. Small ¯rms, it is argued, typically do not have nearly as much collateral as large ¯rms and will not have the same ability to raise external funds.

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  • Sector Approaches and Sector Programmes have been labelled over time in different ways: SIPs (Sector Investment Programmes), SDPs (Sector Development Programmes), Sector Expenditure Programmes, and more recently SWAp (Sector Wide Approach). In spite of the varied terminology, there are key principles on which there is agreement in the international donor community. 11 Firstly, it is accepted that they should be led by partner governments. Secondly, they have the common goal of improving the efficiency and effectiveness with which internal and external resources are utilised.

    pdf131p tainhacmienphi 25-02-2013 21 5   Download

  • In the medium term, Zimbabwe’s prospects and performance will be largely determined by political developments and key reforms aimed at improving the investment climate especially in the areas of the property rights, indigenization, and land reform, which make up the risks to the outlook. In addition, the speed and determination with which the Government addresses the issue of external indebtedness will be vital, as this will unlock critical resources required for investment in the various sectors of the economy and in infrastructure in particular....

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  • They fill a gap: as BAs do not face the transaction costs faced by venture capitalists, they are able to conduct smaller investments. Studies show that, while Business Angels invest across the full range of company stages, they are the main source of funding when the deal size is under USD 1m, and they participate in a higher number of rounds of seed and start up capital than venture capital funds. Mason and Harrison note that the informal venture capital market is the largest external source of early stage risk capital, dwarfing the institutional venture capital market...

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  • Many countries around the world are partly prefunding their otherwise pay-as-you-go (PAYG) financed social security systems by establishing or further developing existing public pension reserve funds (PPRFs). Most OECD countries have put in place internal and external governance mechanisms and investment controls to ensure the sound management of these funds and better isolate them from undue political influence. These structures and mechanisms are in line with OECD standards of good pension fund governance and investment management.

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  • Barriers to low-carbon investment may be financial, structural or technical. Financial barriers include fossil fuel subsidies, and the unpriced carbon externality. These discourage local businesses, project developers, vendors, technology providers from offering low carbon solutions to the market, and hamper institutional and market financing mechanisms enabling such businesses to grow.

    pdf82p quaivatdo 19-11-2012 21 4   Download

  • The Californian Public Employees‟ Retirement System (CalPERS) has approximately USD 231 billion in assets and is the largest public pension fund in the United States. Since 2006, CalPERS has committed USD 500 million to external managers in its Global Equity asset class who restrict companies with a negative environmental footprint. CalPERS has committed more than USD 1.5 billion to its private equity Environmental Technology Program, and has strongly advocated the reporting of environmental risk in its engagements with federal regulators and portfolio companies. ...

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  • The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute and Silk Road Studies Program constitute a single, joint Transatlantic Research and Policy Center. The Center is independent and externally funded and has offices in Washington, D.C., and Uppsala, Sweden. The Center is affiliated with the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, and the Department of East European Studies, Uppsala University.

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  • Monitoring and regular review. Project manage- ment must keep track of how the project is progressing in terms of expenditure, resource use, implementation of activities, delivery of results and the management of risks. This is achieved through ‘monitoring’, which is the systematic and continu- ous collection, analysis and use of management information to support effective decision-making. Monitoring is an internal management responsibil- ity, although it may be complemented by ‘external’ monitoring inputs.

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  • There are different approaches to classify intangible resources. Edvinsson / Malone and Stew- art classify in Human Capital, Structural Capital and Customer Capital. 15 Bontis uses Rela- tional Capital in a wider sense instead of Customer Capital 16 and Sveiby classifies in internal structure, external structure and people’s competence. 17 The workforce “Intangibles in Ac- counting” separates seven categories of intangible resources.

    pdf36p lenh_hoi_xung 22-02-2013 18 2   Download

  • Many companies spend weeks preparing a sales presentation to a customer, but overlook the necessity of taking the same care when dealing with their bank manager or a potential investor. Banks and investors look for detailed information to accompany an application for funds. Therefore management needs to be able to write effective business plans. In this booklet we show you how to go about writing a successful business plan not only for these external purposes but also as an important management tool for internal purposes....

    pdf44p socolanong 19-04-2012 39 19   Download

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