One of the central issues in robotics and animal motor control is the problem of trajectory
generation and modulation. Since in many cases trajectories have to be modified on-line
when goals are changed, obstacles are encountered, or when external perturbations occur,
the notions of trajectory generation and trajectory modulation are tightly coupled.
As already stated, a road vehicle on pneumatic tires cannot maintain a given trajectory under the eﬀect of external perturbations unless managed by some control device, which is usually a human driver. Its stability solely involves such state variables as the sideslip angle β and the yaw velocity r. In the case of two-wheeled vehicles the capsize motion is intrinsically unstable forcing the driver not only to control the trajectory but stabilize the vehicle. A possible scheme of the vehicle-driver system is shown in Fig. 27.1.
To fulfill the ever increasing demands of internet based communication network, the
speed of computing as well as the speed of data processing should be high enough
with the transmission medium of enormous potential bandwidth having the vast
amount of information handling capabilities. On the other hand, conventional
electronic technology has already reached its ultimate speed limit (40 Gb/s) through
the limitations of miniaturization of chips and bandwidth limitation, and obviously it
will create data traffic jam in future internet based networking services....