Many of the fabrication techniques require use of organic solvents and high temperature.
The residues that remains after completion of process can damage cells and nearby tissues.
This may also denature the biologically active molecules incorporated within the scaffolds.
The gas foaming scaffold fabrication techniques does not require the utilization of organic
solvents and high temperature.
This technique uses high pressure carbon dioxide gas for the fabrication of highly porous
This dissertation will outline solution processable materials and fabrication techniques to
manufacture flexible electronic devices from them. Conductive ink formulations and
inkjet printing of gold and silver on plastic substrates were examined. Line patterning and
mask printing methods were also investigated as a means of selective metal deposition on
various flexible substrate materials. These solution-based manufacturing methods
provided deposition of silver, gold and copper with a controlled spatial resolution and a
very high electrical conductivity.
The following chapters discuss architects who
have honed digital-fabrication techniques on
pecific projects. Each discussion is accompanied by
a detailed breakdown of the fabrication technique,
providing insight into the recent projects featured in
ach chapter. These are projects that concentrate on
he fertile realm of one-to-one-scale experimentation,
which demands reciprocity between design and
mpirical innovation. The final outcomes hinge on
he ability to reconcile the developmental shifts in
material and working method.
Nanotechnology has experienced a rapid growth in the past decade, mostly because of
the rapid advances in nano-fabrication techniques employed to fabricate the nanodevices.
Nano-fabrication can be divided into two categories: the first is the so-called
“bottom up” approach, in which nano-structures are created either by chemical synthesis
of nano-wires, nanotubes and nano-particles, or by self-assembly of nano-objects or thin
layers to form quasi-periodic arrays or phase separation patterns....
Most manufacturing technologies for metallic microstructures
have their roots either in semiconductor (inmost cases, silicon) device production or
in conventional precision machining. Of these, the techniques that are well known
have been used formicrostructure dimensions. Further, they have been adapted and
improved to reach the desired precision and surface quality. In some rare cases, itwas
possible to use the same manufacturing process for macroscale and microscale
devices and to get the desired results.
Nanotechnology is an often misunderstood term. Say the word, and
you are likely to elicit various conceptions from complete ignorance of the
term to the fear of a science fiction type mass assembler that threatens the
The term has come to mean different things to different people.
“Nano” is a prefix meaning one-billionth. In distance, a nanometer is
one billionth of a meter. As illustration, a human hair is 100,000 nanometers
(nm) in width. A red blood cell measures approximately 5,000 nm across.
Ten hydrogen atoms, lined up side by side, if...
All are expected to observe the highest standards of research integrity and to
embed good practice in all aspects of their work, including the training of new
researchers.They must operate honestly and openly in respect of their own
actions and in response to the actions of others involved in research.
The spectrum of inappropriate behaviour is wide, ranging from minor
misdemeanours which may happen occasionally and inadvertently, to significant
acts of misappropriation or fabrication.
Practically speaking, because buildings are
made from a series of parts, their assembly relies on
techniques of aggregating and manipulating two
dimensional materials. Computer fabrication has
opened a realm for architects to perceptually heighten
and make visible the nature of this accretion through
constructed repetition and difference.
One of the main advantages of this technique is that it can produce the scaffold with main
structural feature suitable for growth of the cell and subsequent tissue organization (Li &
Tuan, 2009; Liang et al., 2007; Leong et al., 2008). It can produce the ultra fine fibers with
special orientation, high aspect ratio, high surface area, and having control over pore
"Nonwoven fabrics" content presentation: Raw materials, classificaion of Nonwoven, production steps for different methods, types of webs and their forming techniques, nonwoven fabric bonding techniques,... Invite you to consult.
The hole closing reported in this letter is certainly not caused by
deposition of carbon-rich material by the electron beam, a common
phenomenon in electron microscopy. The observation that large pores
expand is in direct contradiction with potential contamination growth.
Secondly, electron-energy-loss spectra (EELS) locally obtained on the
material that filled a nanopore clearly show the presence of silicon and
oxygen,but the absence of any carbon (detection limit was less than 2%).
This unit could be assessed in conjunction with any other
units addressing the safety, quality, communication,
materials handling, recording and reporting associated
with applying fabrication, forming and shaping
techniques or other units requiring the exercise of the
skills and knowledge covered by this unit.
Assessors must be satisfied that the candidate can
competently and consistently perform all elements of the
unit as specified by the criteria, including required
knowledge, and be capable of applying the competency
in new and different situations and contexts. ...
Architecture continually informs and is informed
by its modes of representation and construction,
perhaps never more so than now, when digital media
and emerging technologies are rapidly expanding
what we conceive to be formally, spatially, and
materially possible. Digital fabrication, in particular,
has spurred a design revolution, yielding a wealth of
architectural invention and innovation. How designs
use digital fabrication and material techniques to
calibrate between virtual model and physical artifact
is the subject of this book.
It is inconceivable today to imagine designing
buildings without the use of computers. They are
used at every step of the architectural process,
from conceptual design to construction. Three
dimensional modeling and visualization, generative
form finding, scripted modulation systems, structura
and thermal analyses, project management and
coordination, and file-to-factory production are just
some of the digital practices employed by architects
and building consultants.
Architects have been drawing digitally for
nearly thirty years. CAD programs have made two
dimensional drawing efficient, easy to edit, and, with
a little practice, simple to do. Yet for many years, as
the process of making drawings steadily shifted from
being analog to digital, the design of buildings did
not really reflect the change. CAD replaced drawing
with a parallel rule and lead pointer, but buildings
looked pretty much the same. This is perhaps not
so surprising-one form of two-dimensional
representation simply replaced another.
A special method to manufacture metallic microstructures is SLM. It is one of the
rare generative methods for metals and is normally taken into the list of rapid
prototyping technologies. The technique is completely different than the abrasive
techniques described so far.On a base platformmade of the desiredmetalmaterial, a
thin layer of a metal powder is distributed. A focused laser beam is ducted along the
structure lines given by a 3DCADmodel,which is controlled by a computer.With the
laser exposure, themetal powder ismelted, forming a welding bead.
ment will lead to non-regular channels and thereforemay interfere with the bonding
technique; in severe cases, it may lead to the destruction of the complete device. A
correct alignment will lead to only small deviations fromthe desired elliptical shape,
and the distortion while the bonding process takes place will be minimum. Align-
ment techniques used to avoid errors can be simplemechanicalmethods (e.g. use of
alignment pins), edge catches in a specially designed assembling device or optical
methods such as laser alignment.
Owing to the diffusion ofmaterial fromone foil to
another, no borderline limitations between single foils in terms of heat transfer exist
any more. Thus, the thermal behavior of diffusion-bonded devices is superior in
comparison to that of the devices manufactured by other bonding techniques. In
Figure 1.13, the diffusion bonding process chain is shown clockwise, starting with
the single foils stack of a cross-ﬂow stainless steel device. Figure 1.14 shows a cut
through a diffusion-bonded stainless steel device.
Freeform fabrication technology does not
require pre-formed mandrels or tooling;
instead, it builds physical objects directly
from computer graphical data. This type of
technology is also known as layer
manufacturing, since it constructs the three-
dimensional object layer by layer (Jacobs,
1992; Beaman et al., 1997). The technology
has proved that it can help to rapidly provide
feedback on design concepts, discover
inconsistencies in the design, modify the
design, and eliminate inconsistency before
fabricating the design.
In 2006 Korean shipbuilding companies got new orders of 19,585,000 CGT, which was
the highest number since 2000. Moreover in the first half of 2007 Korean shipbuilders
have received 51.3% more orders than that of a year ago. Strong demand for new
vessels was expected to continue for the next few years at least, due to expanding
world-wide seaborne trade, especially between China and USA, and increasing need of
new ships to adapt new International Maritime Organization’s requirements.