There has been an exponential growth in the number of techniques for
measuring characteristics of the family. Specifically, the first edition covered
a thirty-year period and included abstracts of 319 measures. But the second
edition, which adds abstracts of instruments published in just a ten-year span,
contains 494 additional measures, or a total of 813. Because the number of
instruments has more than doubled, it was not possible for the two of us alone
to search the hundreds of journals in which these measures appear and to abstract
all 494 instruments.
Since President Lyndon Johnson’s declaration of War on Poverty and the passage of the
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, optimism that had surrounded those measures has
faded. The economic, fiscal, and social conditions of the old central cities have declined,
while their inner-ghetto areas have become zones of calamity. Their residents are not only
living in poverty, but they must also contend with levels of drug use and violence that,
although currently in decline, would have seemed inconceivable in the early 1960s.
A sample of 200 consumers was drawn randomly from rural and urban locations in the
two main regions of the Eastern Cape, namely the former Transkei homeland area and the
former Ciskei homeland area. By means of structured questionnaires, the respondents
were interviewed in relation to where they buy their groceries from, the types of foods
they bought, their present and future buying patterns, preferred food products, and their
reasons for choice of particular food products.
Operating income before depreciation and amortization is defined as income (loss) from operations before
depreciation, amortization of intangible assets and amortization of stock compensation expense. We
consider operating income before depreciation and amortization to be an important indicator of the
operational strength of the Company.
achieve universal primary education (Mdg 2). Gender parity
in education is still to be achieved. It is essential because
educated girls and women improve prospects for the whole
family, helping to break the cycle of poverty. In Africa, for
example, children whose mothers have been educated for at
least five years are 40% more likely to live beyond the age of
five. Schools can serve as a point of contact for women and
children, allowing health-related information to be shared,
services offered and health literacy promoted. ...
At the beginning, specialists tried to diagnose the stage of periodontal disease depending
on the relation between the clinical appearances and the presence of some specific cell
populations or specific matrix components (Havemose-Poulsen & Holmstrup, 1997;
Romanos et al., 1993).
Bivalves constitute one of the largest groups, in terms of biomass, of filter-feeding organisms in many
freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater bivalves have been used in an increasingly diverse array of
ecotoxicological applications over the past 30 years. Among the four families of freshwater bivalves,
there are sharply differing reasons for their use in ecotoxicological research. The Corbiculidae,
Dreissenidae and, to a lesser extent, the Sphaeriidae, have fulfilled the traditional role of
ecotoxicological research organisms....
The past three decades have witnessed a steadily
increasing awareness of the need to empower women
through measures to increase social, economic and
political equity, and broader access to fundamental
human rights, improvements in nutrition, basic health
and education. Along with awareness of the
subordinate status of women has come the concept of
gender as an overarching socio-cultural variable, seen
in relation to other factors, such as race, class, age and
Trends in needing help with such activities as housework or shopping may be
due to changes in the physical abilities of the older population, but they may also be
related to the availability of help in the house, either familial or paid, the availability
of appliances, and the accessibility of transportation (1, 12). However, causes of
trends in IADL functioning have not been apportioned to reasons residing in the
person and reasons outside the person.
The trends in what is termed ADL disability have not been nearly as consistent
as those in IADL disability (31).
The variables measuring the independence and financial expertise of the
board and audit committees, the CEO’s influence on the board, and data on
auditors’ fees were hand collected from the latest proxy statement dated
before the announcement date of a restatement. We measure these variables
before the restatement announcement because firms may change the structure
of their board or audit committee or replace their CEOs after restating their
In empirical studies of retirement decisions of the elderly, health is often found to have a large, if not
dominant, effect. Depending on which health measures are used, these estimated effects may be biased
estimates of the causal effect of health on the dependent variable(s).Research indicates that subjective,
self-assessed health measures may be affected by endogenous reporting behaviour and even if an objective
health measure is used, it is not likely ...
A focus on investments in agriculture, agribusinesses and other areas linked to
agriculture. Given the research subject, the identified investment funds have a clear
focus on investments in agriculture and/or agribusiness. The funds might therefore target
agriculture directly or indirectly (e.g. through investments in MFIs that provide access to
finance to smallholders). These funds may be part of a “family of funds” managed by a
This conversation is an opportunity to rethink how commitments on gender equality can be anchored in development
partnerships with different actors in the context of post-Rio and post-2015. Participants are expected to discuss
innovative thinking on how MA must advance conceptually and how gender equality can be anchored at the heart of this
Besides conducting national censuses, the CBS is a primary source of information for multi-sectoral
data in the country. It was in the early nineties that the CBS established a separate Household Survey
Section (HSS). This section initiated four small-scale surveys with funding from the GoN. Then a
comprehensive survey for Nepal was launched by the CBS in 1995/96 through its multi-topic
(consumption, income, housing, labor markets, education, health etc.) national household survey
called the Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS I) with financial assistance from the World Bank.
There are a number of well-recognized indicators of biological risk for cardiovascular
disease, diabetes, and death for which change over some period of
time can be determined from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination
Surveys (NHANES). Collection of some measures began as early as the 1960s,
and some are not available until the 1980s. NHANES data show that the percentage
of the older population with high cholesterol has decreased since the 1960s,
somewhat faster for women than men (60).
MEASURING INTERNAL STRENGTH: WILDER’S RSI INDICATOR
By Wayne A. Thorp
Wilder’s relative strength index measures a stock’s price relative to itself over time. Its popularity lies in its versatility in identifying market extremes and illustrating points of divergence that may indicate an approaching reversal of price trend.
In his 1978 book, “New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems,” J. Welles Wilder (Trade Research) introduced the relative strength index (RSI).
The level of corporate profits increased in FY 2011,
but at a slower pace than in the previous fiscal year. Federal spending grew and tax receipts
increased in FY 2011, which resulted in the Federal unified budget deficit remaining essentially
flat at $1.3 trillion. However, the deficit narrowed as a share of GDP to 8.7 percent from 9.0
percent in FY 2010. The economy continued to receive significant support during the fiscal year
by a wide variety of measures implemented under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
of 2009 (Recovery Act or ARRA). It was also...
The measures administered over the course of the study included both researcher-
developed tests and standardized tests of the components of reading described above.
The researcher-developed tests included the following: a phonology test and a phonemic
segmentation task (phonological awareness); a letter, word, and pseudoword naming task
(word reading); and tests of cognate awareness and morphological awareness (word
Gold has always fascinated the mankind’s imagination and influenced their urge to possess the same. Gold occupies a pivotal role in the social and economic life of poor and rich alike. In Vietnam, besides the economic and strong social considerations, individuals are highly sentimental about the gold jewellery in their possession, as the gold ornaments are passed on from one generation to another. Acquisition of gold is considered auspicious and necessary for making family ornaments to get a sense of wellbeing in our country.
This paper doesn’t outline how to measure and report social sustainability. This task has
already been undertaken by the author and presented elsewhere (see Kimmet and Wikstrom
2005). The much less ambitious objective of shoring up the case for such measurement
frameworks is all that’s attempted here. Arguably though, this is at least as important as how
to do it, given that many real estate investors will want to evaluate potential investments in
their own way once it is clearly understood what social sustainability is, and why it should be