We implement the classical and modiﬁed ElGamal digital signature scheme to compare and to test their functionality, reliability and security. To test the security of the algorithms we use a famous attack algorithm called Baby-Step-Giant algorithm which works in the domain of natural integers.
Differential evolution is one of the most recent global optimizers. Discovered
in 1995 it rapidly proved its practical efficiency. This book gives you a chance
to learn all about differential evolution. On reading it you will be able to
profitably apply this reliable method to problems in your field.
As for me, my passion for intelligent systems and optimization began as far
back as during my studies at Moscow State Technical University of Bauman,
the best engineering school in Russia. At that time, I was gathering material
for my future thesis.
When the history of the Nineteenth Century--'the Wonderful Century,' as it has, not inaptly, been
called--comes to be written, a foremost place must be assigned to that great movement by which evolution has
become the dominant factor in scientific progress, while its influence has been felt in every sphere of human
speculation and effort. At the beginning of the Century, the few who ventured to entertain evolutionary ideas
were regarded by their scientific contemporaries, as wild visionaries or harmless 'cranks'--by the world at
large, as ignorant 'quacks' or 'designing atheists.
An efﬁcient decoding algorithm is a crucial element of any statistical machine translation system. Some researchers have noted certain similarities between SMT decoding and the famous Traveling Salesman Problem; in particular (Knight, 1999) has shown that any TSP instance can be mapped to a sub-case of a word-based SMT model, demonstrating NP-hardness of the decoding task. In this paper, we focus on the reverse mapping, showing that any phrase-based SMT decoding problem can be directly reformulated as a TSP.