Fear conditioning

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  • Women in prison often have more health problems than male prisoners. As indicated before, many have chronic and complex health conditions resulting from lives of poverty, drug use, family violence, sexual assault, adolescent pregnancy, malnutrition and poor health care (Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, 2006; WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2007a). Drug-dependent women offenders have a higher prevalence than male offenders of tuberculosis, hepatitis, toxaemia, anaemia, hypertension, diabetes and obesity (Covington, 2007).

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  • Among the components of the limbic system, the amygdala is a fascinating structure that is involved in the processes of liking and disliking and in the ways our emotions drive our actions and affect the strength of our memories. Combined with new conceptual breakthroughs, the very latest data obtained by leading world experts in amygdala function that are reviewed in this book have helped to understand how the amygdala contribute to these processes and also to a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric pathologies....

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  • When our son was diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder at the age of two and a half, like thousands of parents before us we roller-coasted through the typical emotional responses: dismay, grief, fear for our future, but finally relief. We conclusively had a name for this condition that was filling our little boy’s life with distress, impossible, repetitive and meaningless routines and such a reluctance to respond to us that we were sure he was deaf.

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  • P ain is an inevitable part of the human experience. We are born frail and vulnerable, and maturation does little to change our condition. Re- gardless of age, we have practically no natural protection from attacks by predators or even from the environment in harsh weather conditions. What keeps us safe is our intelligence and the ability to come up with methods to protect our soft skin, easily broken bones, and vulnerable vi- tal organs. In fact, we humans live in mortal fear of even the slightest wound, and we have devised elaborate mechanisms to protect ourselves.

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  • The enlargement of the European Community (EC) and later the European Union (EU) was never particularly popular.2 Indeed, the first attempt at widening the EU culminated in the Community’s “first real crisis” when Charles de Gaulle, then-President of France, rejected the British accession in a dramatic press conference at the E´ lyse´e Palace (Nicholson and East 1987, 39). He claimed that Britain’s conditions for joining the Union were unacceptable to France.

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  • Why the workforce is important In this first decade of the 21st century, immense advances in human well-being coexist with extreme deprivation. In global health we are witnessing the benefits of new medicines and technologies. But there are unprecedented reversals. Life expectancies have collapsed in some of the poorest countries to half the level of the richest – attributable to the ravages of HIV/AIDS in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and to more than a dozen “failed states”.

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  • Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological development as generally having beneficial effects for the society and the human condition. In these ideologies, technological development is morally good. Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism and techno-utopianism and fear the notion of human enhancement and technological singularity which they support. Some have described Karl Marx as a techno-optimist.[44]...

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  • The sharp rise in funding costs and growing concerns over adequate capitalisation toward the end of 2011 added to existing market pressures on European banks to deleverage. Deleveraging is part of a necessary post-crisis adjustment to remove excess capacity and restructure balance sheets, thus restoring the conditions for a sound banking sector. That said, the confluence of funding strains and sovereign risk led to fears of a precipitous deleveraging process that could hurt financial markets and the wider economy via asset sales and contractions in credit.

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  • Passing annoyance, disappointment, disgust, embarrassment, and various other disliked conditions such as fear, anxiety, and minor ("harmless") aches and pains, are not in themselves necessarily harmful. Consequently, no matter how the harm principle is mediated, it will not certify as legitimate those interferences with the liberty of some citizens that are made for the sole purpose of preventing such unpleasant states in others.

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  • Whenever a desired result is achieved by the cooperation of many independent persons, its existence as a fact is a pure consequence of the precursive faith in one another of those immediately concerned. A government, an army, a commercial system, a ship, a college, an athletic team, all exist on this condition, without which not only is nothing achieved, but nothing is even attempted.

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  • Ensuring that children are healthy and able to learn is an essential part of an effective education system. As many studies show, education and health are inseparable. A child’s nutritional status affects cognitive performance and test scores; illness from parasitic infection results in absence from school, leading to school failure and dropping out (Vince Whitman et al., 2001). Structures and conditions of the learning environment are as important to address as individual factors. Water and sanitation conditions at school can affect girls’ attendance.

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  • Disease is a fundamental aspect of the human condition. Ancient bones tell us that pathological processes are older than humankind’s written records, and sickness still confounds our generation’s technological pride. We have not banished pain, disability, or the fear of death, even if we die on the average at older ages, of chronic and not acute ills, in hospital or hospice beds, and not in our own homes. Disease is something men and women feel. It is experienced in our bodies—but also in our minds. Disease demands explanation; we think about it and we think with it.

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