Xem 1-20 trên 84 kết quả Female fertility
  • As highlighted in Moffitt (1998), many studies over the last ten years have examined the effects of programs like AFDC, Medicaid, and food stamps on family structure and children’s well-being. These studies have been motivated by a growing concern that public assistance programs con- tributed to the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and female headship, two behaviors associated with the incidence of poverty, especially among children. Until very recently, however, little attention has been paid to the effects of the EITC expansions on these behaviors.

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  • The First Conference of French-Speaking African Countries on Men’s Participation in Reproductive Health was held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from March 30 to April 3, 1998. It was organized to share experiences and lessons learned over the past decade among African organizations about communicating with men on reproductive health issues.

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  • In recent years a number of OECD countries experienced a rapid increase in housing market activity, which coincided with a period of low real and nominal interest rates. The link between the two is intuitive: low interest rates make credit cheaper and increase the demand for housing. Some scholars argue that expansionary monetary policy has been signicantly responsible for this low level of interest rates and the subsequent house price boom (Hume and Sentance (2009) and Taylor (2009)).

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  • Undernutrition affects large populations of boys and girls in developing countries. Its major determinant is poverty, which usually combines with other important factors like poor breastfeeding practices and inadequate complementary foods for babies, as well as lack of basic health care, safe water and sanitation. Globally, about 150 million children under five years are undernourished, which comprises 27% of the world’s population in this age group. Twelve million of these children die every year, and protein-energy malnutrition is implicated in more than 55% of all these deaths.

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  • One likely reason for the lack of attention to the older population is that fertility in Cambodia has remained high and thus the share of the population who are age 60 and over is relatively small, especially compared to a number of other southeast Asian countries where population aging is far more rapid. According to the most recent UN assessment, only 5.6 percent of the Cambodian population is aged 60 and over although it is projected to slowly increase in the coming decades (United Nations 2005).

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  • The insurance sector is an infrastructural pillar of the financial services sector and the economy as a whole. It plays a key role in economic development. Several empirical studies suggest a strong correlation between the development of financial intermediaries and economic growth. According to Patrick (1966) 3 there are two, possibly coexisting, relationships between the financial sector and economic growth.

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  • Women in prison often have more health problems than male prisoners. As indicated before, many have chronic and complex health conditions resulting from lives of poverty, drug use, family violence, sexual assault, adolescent pregnancy, malnutrition and poor health care (Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, 2006; WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2007a). Drug-dependent women offenders have a higher prevalence than male offenders of tuberculosis, hepatitis, toxaemia, anaemia, hypertension, diabetes and obesity (Covington, 2007).

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  • Environmental toxins, including exposure to lead, pesticides, and other chemicals, unquestionably affect fertility in men and women. Researchers have documented many examples, the strongest cases involving industrial and occupational exposures. These usually involve small numbers of people exposed to high levels of contamination.

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  • Copyright laws are increasingly passed without democratic debate or scrutiny. In Great Britain, where I live, Parliament recently passed the Digital Economy Act, a complex copy- right law that allows corporate giants to disconnect whole families from the Internet if any- one in the house is accused (without proof) of copyright infringement; it also creates a “Great Firewall of Britain” that is used to censor any site that record companies and movie studios don't like.

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  • The lung has a unique vascular structure and function; it has low pressure, low resistance circulation with a highly compliant system which accommodates the same amount of flow as the systemic circulation. In addition, pulmonary and systemic vasculatures have divergent responses to various stimuli. For example, pulmonary arteries constrict in the setting of hypoxia, while systemic circulation dilates. This is due to distinctive developmental characteristics, anatomic and histological structure, as well as physiological properties.

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  • Rapid response to emergencies includes the immediate shipment of supplies and equipment to help meet the minimum requirements in a crisis, such as enabling pregnant women to deliver in a clean environment. When the situation stabilizes, UNFPA provides support for the full range of reproductive health services. These services address the life-and-death complications of pregnancy and delivery, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS, adolescent health, violence against women, and access to condoms and other contraceptives.

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  • For Senegal, whose SWAp provided a promising locus for donor coordination in health in 2005 (see Box 1), the situation is increasingly complex: having been a priority in every development plan to date, SRH as an integrated concept does not appear in either the current Document de Politique Économique et Sociale 2011–2015 (Economic and Social Policy Document 2011–2015; Senegal’s third poverty-reduction strategy paper) or the Plan National de Développement Sanitaire 2009–2018 (National Health Development Plan 2009–2018).

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  • Workman’s background as a trailer-maker convinced him that “you could capture the essence of a memorable film in as little as a single shot—if you chose the shot carefully enough.” (Birchard, 91) His assemblage of these “essences” places images together for broad generic or thematic reasons, as well as on the basis of simple physical resemblance (similar shots of darting eyes, people popping bubble-gum) or gag value (one clip finishing a sentence from another).

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  • These women are characterized by alterations in the lipid profile, amplification of the inflammatory process, elevated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction as well as cardiovascular disease later in life, all of which comprise aspects of the same disease spectrum. Finally, Chapter 18 comprises an article offering an overview of bioethics given that, in the past few decades, the domain of health care has placed ever more emphasis on the necessity to defend and advance women’s sexual and reproductive rights.

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  • Results from the univariate analysis of prostate cancer mortality and incidence do not take into account the effect of different covariables, which might influence the SMR and SIR. Various covariables where considered to model longitudinal effects: age, calendar year, year of immigration, length of stay in Germany; cohort was considered for the analysis of mortality. Multivariate Poisson regression did not show any significant effect of the considered covariables on mortality (data not shown).

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  • Vitrification has been investigated for tissue-engineered bone and blood vessels. Liu & McGrath (2003) explored the potential of vitrification for the cryopreservation of tissueengineered bone constructs consisting of a hydroxyapatite scaffold-cell complex. Cell survival was 92.0% for suspended cells and 43.0% for attached cells. In terms of tissueengineered blood vessel constructs, the effects of vitrification and conventional cryopreservation were compared (Elder et al., 2005). Collagen-based vascular constructs were used as models in this study.

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  • Everyone loves the news stories about the taxi driverwho delivers a baby for the woman who could not get to the hospital on time. At some point each of us asks ourselves with awe for the first time, “Where did I come from?” It has been said of the body that it is “fearfully and wonderfully made.” How true this is of the reproductive systems on which the survival of our species depends. In this chapter, you will study the systems of the human body responsible for our being here: the male and the female reproduc- tive systems....

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  • Women who are financially, materially or socially dependent on men may have limited power to exercise control in relationships, such as negotiating the use of condoms during sex. Social expectations about how women should behave can place women in subordinate roles and increase their risk of being sexually assaulted, contracting STIs and having unwanted pregnancies, and also limit their access to SRH services.

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  • The equilibrium of the pollutant between the groundwater and the solid phase of the soil is described by a Freundlich isotherm. This nonlinear sorption isotherm does not vary in time. Sorption takes place at the so-called "sorption sites" of the soil. Two classes of sorption sites are distinguished (Boesten, 1986; Brasseau, 1992b). The sorption sites of class 1 are continuously in equilibrium. The class 2 sorption sites are not continuously in equilibrium with the soil solution.

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  • However, neither side of the controversy has presented convincing empirical evidence for their claims. Private banks point towards the Italian experience to corroborate their case for privatization. Since 1990, Italy has gradually privatized its savings banks by separating the banking business from social and cultural activities, by abandoning the “regional prin- ciple,” and by enforcing a reduction of the government ownership of banks.

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