The initial volume of Biennial Review of Infertility was published in 2009.
In the preface to that volume we shared our vision that this series would serve
as a forum for evidence-based reviews of cutting-edge topics in the field of
infertility, written by experts in the field and accessible and applicable to
clinicians and researchers alike. We also began a tradition of highlighting and
providing contrasting reviews to emerging and controversial topics. We are
very pleased with the response we have had to Biennial Reviews of Infertility,
Volume 1, and are excited now to present Volume 2...
(BQ) Part 2 book "Textbook of clinical embryology" presents the following contents: Treatment of male and female infertility, social aspects of using reproductive technology, Assisted peproductive technology (ART), ART - skills, techniques and present status,...
Infertility is defined as the failure to conceive after one year of attempting pregnancy. Primary infertility denotes those patients who have never conceived. Secondary infertility applies to patients who have conceived previously. Approximately 15% of couples experience infertility, which may result from subfertility or sterility (the innate inability to conceive) in either partner or both. The female is responsible in 40%–50% of cases. The male is responsible in 30% and is contributory in another 20%–30% of couples.
"Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and
patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances."
Practice guidelines are used by diverse segments of the medical community to define and
communicate standards of performance and care. To date, the American Medical Association has
catalogued nearly 2,000 clinical practice guidelines or equivalent documents.
An additional source
on practice Guidelines is the web site www.guideline.
Through the licensure of physicians in each country, we
are permitted to treat female cancer patients. However, the
treatment modalities contain medication of various anti-cancer
drugs that can be associated with potentially fatal toxicity if
they are not used correctly. In addition, surgery can also be
associated with risks during our efforts to repair normal tissues
or remove tumors. Such unfortunate events can be fatal.
Environmental toxins, including exposure to lead, pesticides, and other chemicals,
unquestionably affect fertility in men and women. Researchers have documented many
examples, the strongest cases involving industrial and occupational exposures. These usually
involve small numbers of people exposed to high levels of contamination.
Gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) is secreted from hypothalamus and
delivered to the anterior pituitary via the hypophyseal portal circulation where it binds to
the GnRHR on the surface of gonadotropes triggering the synthesis and secretion of the
gonadotropins, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). In the
female, LH stimulates the production of androgens by the thecal cells that surround the
growing ovarian follicle.
Female infertility is most often caused by problems with ovulation (40%) or fallopian tubes
(40%). Other possible causes include endometriosis, in which the uterine lining grows outside
the uterus, premature ovarian failure, in which a woman’s ovaries stop functioning before she
reaches the age of forty, and uterine fibroids. Women who were exposed in the womb to
diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen prescribed to women from 1938-1971, have had an
increased risk of infertility.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) also play a major role in infertility.
Normal functioning of reproductive systems of male
and female, no doubt is expected of all individuals.
But one of the vagaries of nature is aberration of this
function. While fertility is an essential ingredient for
survival and continuity of species, not all couples are
capable of furthering their families. So the problem
of infertility finds its place in the recorded history of
ancient civilisations of Babylonia, Persia and Greece.1
Goddesses of fertility, fertility rites, and superstitions
encompassing the process of birth are mentioned in
the history of these civilisations.
Access to ART is limited by cost and by discriminatory policies. Almost all ART is expensive
and therefore only accessible to people who can afford it. No states’ public benefits programs
cover IVF. Some states require private insurers to cover ART, though this only applies to
individuals who have a medical diagnosis of infertility (see footnote 4). Twelve states are
mandated to cover,
and 2 states are mandated to offer
coverage. Specifics on coverage depend
on the state. Some states exempt HMOs or companies with few employees.
The authors examined the online construction of identity and sexuality in a large sample of conversations from
monitored and unmonitored teen chat rooms. More than half of the 583 participants (identified by a distinct
screen name) communicated identity information, most frequently gender. In this way, participants compensated
for the text-based chat environment by providing information about themselves that would be visible and
obvious in face-to-face communication.
An obstetrician/gynecologist possesses specialized knowledge, skills, and
professional capability in the medical and surgical care of the female
reproductive system and associated disorders. To become certified by ABOG
requires four years of training, plus two years in clinical practice and
passage of both written and oral examinations before certification is
complete. Specialists in reproductive medicine usually undergo training in
obstetrics and gynecology, followed by training in reproductive
endocrinology and infertility, or in urology followed by training in
Since its first description by Steptoe and Edward, IVF gained popularity among both
doctors and patients. There is many studies on assisted reproduction and they cover
most of the related technical, laboratory as well as clinical aspects. To write a book on
assisted reproduction nowadays seems very difficult due to a wide plethora of related
papers and well-illustrated books. This small-sized book aims at refinement of some
already known points of practical importance in infertility management particularly