The children protection began in 12th and 13th centuries in Aragón and Castilla after the
promulgation of some laws by King Alfonso X “The Wise” of Castilla and King Pedro IV of
Aragón. The first of them, in the law “Fuero Juzgo” sentenced the abortion and the
infanticide. The second of them, King Pedro IV, created the figure of “Judge and Father of
Orphans”, whose mission was to look after children's health, to keep them away of begging
and to lead them to work. There even were centers where children received food and
education. Bernardo Gordonio, in his book ...
From April 2008 to April 2011, with the support of
grants from the Ford Foundation and the United
Nations Foundation (UNF) /United Nations Fund for
International Partnerships (UNFIP), WHO and UNFPA
developed and delivered a training programme
for their staff entitled “Strengthening capacity of
UNFPA and WHO to advocate for the integration of
sexual and reproductive health issues into national
development planning processes”.
Hollywood submitted to the rigorous oversight of the PCA because the alternatives to
“censorship at the source” were far worse. After all, censorship had been a fact of
creative and commercial life for motion picture producers from the very birth of the
medium, when even the modest osculations of the middle-aged lovebirds in Thomas
Edison’s The Kiss (1896) scandalized cadres of (literally) Victorian ministers, matrons,
and other variants of a sour-faced species known as the “bluenose.
Total GHGEs from the food supply can be split by a nominal boundary of the regional distribution
centre (RDC), i.e. primary commodity production and transport to the RDC (pre-RDC) and processing,
transport to retail, storage, preparation and waste (post-RDC), in the ratio of 56:44 (Audsley et al.
2009). It is recognised, however, that this is only a nominal boundary as it is not always clear exactly
where primary production ends and processing begins for different types of food.
When an infection occurs, immune cells flock to the area and secrete large amounts of
highly reactive chemicals to combat the invader. But, these inflammatory chemicals
also attack normal tissue surrounding the infection and damage critical components of
cells, including DNA. During chronic inflammation, DNA damage may lead to
mutations or cell death and even to cancer and other diseases.
The nomenclature for the Interagency List of Essential Medical Devices for Reproductive
Health is based on the existing United Nations Common Coding System (UNCCS) and the
UNICEF products database for the classification of products groups.
All products from this list are identified with a generic, short description with a maximum of
50 characters, except for the sutures. The complete technical specifications of the products are
based on the UNICEF standard products.
Indirect standardization is more appropriate for rare outcomes than direct
standardization, resulting in the calculation of rates (McMichael and Giles, 1988). A
limitation of this study is that we did not have access to information on potentially
important risk factors such as lifestyle.
Results for all causes of deaths were significantly lower compared to the autochthon
German population. Overall SMR is reduced for the Aussiedler, therefore, they seem to be
healthier or more resistant than the Germans and therefore they are much healthier than
populations of countries from the FSU....
Though still small – a market for green investments is also starting to grow. Alongside more
developed equity products (such as green indices comprising of listed companies operating in the green
space), fixed income instruments are also being launched – notably green bonds, for which the OECD
estimates that the market is now around USD 16 billion. Alongside the World Bank‟s USD 2.3 billion
issuance, other development banks have become involved (EIB, ADB) and the US government has
introduced interesting initiatives.
Even in work that lies so near the fortuities of animate nature as dairying, stock−breeding, and the
improvement of crop plants, a determinate, reasoned routine replaces the rule of thumb. By mechanical
control of his materials the dairyman, e.g., selectively determines the rate and kind of the biological processes
that change his raw material into finished product.
An option of longstanding interest is prevention—interventions that prevent or delay the
occurrence of the very diseases that drive these costs. There are three kinds of prevention.
Primary prevention can be accomplished by modifying unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking,
physical inactivity), which cause many diseases and account for 38% of all deaths in the United
administering immunizations to prevent infectious diseases, and reducing exposure to
harmful environmental factors.
Many people who develop materials try to create something for “everyone.” After all, everyone
needs good information and would probably benefit from knowing what you have to say. In
reality, no one thing is right for everyone. Instead, certain things tend to work best for certain
groups of people. The more narrowly you can define these groups, the closer you will come to
meeting their needs. That is why materials should speak to a particular audience: people who
share similar characteristics and have similar information needs.
Even when schools are free, poor children
may be forced to leave in order to work.
Children may need to provide extra house-
hold income or care for younger siblings
so that both parents can work outside
the home. Conditional cash transfers
have been used as effective incentives
for parents to enrol their children in school
in Latin America. Families receive money
on the condition that their children attend
school and go to health-care appointments
(see Box 7, page 25). In addition, grants
can go directly to teachers and to schools.
Enter the amount of terminal loss relief you are claiming against your
2011–12 profits at box 73 on page SEF 4 or box 15 on the Partnership
pages as a loss brought forward and used this year . This is in addition to any
other losses you are bringing forward from earlier years, but make sure you
do not count the same loss twice. Enter the total amount of terminal loss
relief for 2010–11, 2009–10 or 2008–09 in box 78 on page SEF 4 or box 21
on the Partnership pages and give details of the amount carried back to each
year in the ‘Any other information’...
We find a positive and significant relationship between the ROE of the appointing
firm and the relative performance of the executive director‟s ROE. In terms of
magnitude, a two standard deviations increase in the relative ROE of the company
where director holds an executive position increases ROE of the appointing
company by 0.035. This is a very substantial increase given that the average
(median) ROE is 0.10 (0.12). We interpret this result as evidence that the appointing
firm gains some of the director‟s human capital in the form of better quality...
Over the last twenty years, the field of behavioral finance has grown from a
startup operation into a mature enterprise, with well-developed bodies of both theory and
empirical evidence. On the empirical side, the benchmark null hypothesis is that one
should not be able to forecast a stock’s return with anything other than measures of its
riskiness, such as its beta; this hypothesis embodies the familiar idea that any other form
of predictability would represent a profitable trading rule and hence a free lunch to
The credit began as part of a broader eﬀort by Senator Russell Long
(Dem.-La.) to derail congressional and presidential interest in a negative
income tax (NIT) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The initial debates
highlighted a tension that exists to this day. The attraction of the NIT was
that—as a universal antipoverty program—it would provide a guaranteed
minimal standard of living to all in an administratively eﬃcient way
(through the tax system) without having the notches and high cumulative
marginal tax rates that characterize a patchwork system of narrower pro-
Banks worldwide are facing a crisis of
confidence. According to a nationally
representative survey in the US, less than half the
customers had confidence in the financial
security of banks – not a faith-inspiring number
when you consider the fact that this survey was
conducted a week before the Lehman Brothers
filed for bankruptcy. The sub-prime fiasco,
Madoff scandal and subsequent market
downslide have destroyed customer faith and
trust in financial institutions.
Another scheme, prime bank notes are “fictitious and fraudulent instruments -- not backed or endorsed by
any legitimate financial institution.” In other words, prime bank notes do not exist.
are often marketed using an assortment of vague terms such as debentures, letters of credit, commercial
paper, prime notes, bills of exchange; bank secured trading programs or loan roll programs. The sales
pitch typically includes promises of unrealistic rates of return (e.g.
If we multiply the price-earnings estimate of Sloan (1936), which is equal to 17.5, by
1929 total NIPA earnings, we get an estimate for the market value of all corporations in late
August/early September of 1929 of 1.54 times GNP (= 30.8/1.76 × 8.8).
We can use the same procedure with companies in the S&P indices. In Table 2, we
provide a list of the 50 companies in the S&P industrial index, the 20 companies in the S&P
index of railroads and the 20 companies in the S&P index of public utilities. The 90 are the
stocks in their composite index. Along with names, we report...
We all know that keeping a positive attitude can
affect our mental and physical health. So main-
taining a certain amount of calm and acceptance
about your circumstances can set the tone for your
family interactions. If the parent with PD is con-
stantly complaining or embarrassed, kids will pick
up on that and act the same way.
Of course, that’s not to say that you have to keep
everyone’s spirits up all the time. You need to
experience your own emotions and give them
validation. The key is to not get caught up in your
emotions and let them drag you down.