Optical fibers, an important and promising material, have been the subject of intensive
research and development due to their many scientific and practical applications. They
are designed to guide light along its length by confining as much light as possible in
its core. The interaction between the propagating light with the fiber material is the
foundation of the development of various applications such as optical amplifiers, fiber
lasers, sensors etc.
Most of the material in this volume is new. The first three chapters deal with three important fiber-optic components--fiber-based gratings, couplers, and interferometers--that serve as the building blocks of lightwave technology. In view of the enormous impact of rare-earth-doped fibers, amplifiers and lasers made by using such fibers are covered in Chapters 4 and 5. The last three chapters describe important applications of nonlinear fiber optics and are devoted to pulse-compression techniques, fiber-optic communication systems, and soliton-based transmission schemes....
Since 1970, optical fiber and optical communication technologies have been rapidly
developing, causing a technology revolution in the communication industries. Due
to much lower attenuation and interference, optical fiber has many advantages over
existing copper wire in long-distance and high-demand applications. The revolution
in communication industries also significantly reduces the prices of optical
components and stimulates the development of optical fiber sensors.
This paper presents the result of research on equipment development of vacuum injection molding technique for preparation the chopped bamboo fiber polymer composite and some properties of obtained composite material. For the vacuum injection molding technique, firstly the dry fibers were plated in the mold. Then the mold was closed by the vacuum bag, the air inside the mold was sucked out by a vacuum pump, due to the difference of the pressure in side and outside the mold, the polymer liquid was transferred to the closed mold and impregnated the bamboo fiber.
The fracture toughness of medium density fiberboard (MDF) as a function of crack length was measured. Fracture toughness was determined from force–displacement and crack length data using a new energy analysis procedure that avoids the scatter of prior discrete analysis methods. Because crack lengths were difficult to observe, they were measured using digital image correlation (DIC). The R curves for two different densities of MDF, two thicknesses, and for both in-plane and through-the-thickness cracks all increased linearly with crack length.
The fibre is spun into yarn, which is then processed into fabric in a weaving or knitting mill. After dyeing and finishing, the woven material is ready for delivery either directly to a manufacturer of textile products to finally get stitched into clothes that we wear. Invite you to refer to part 2 book.
Not all materials can be etched in an easy and cheap way. Especially, noble metals or
tantalum are stable against most of these corrosive structuring methods. Hence,
precision machining may be used to generate microstructures from these metals as
well as from standard metal alloys such as stainless steel or hastelloy. Depending on
the material, precision machining can be performed by spark erosion (wire spark
erosion and countersunk spark erosion), laser machining or mechanical precision
To enhance learning (RL) is a branch en ot the foundation cial intelligence
and has been one of the central themes in a wide range of scientifi c fi elds final
two decades. Understanding of the RL is expected to provide a systematic understanding
the adaptive behaviors, including simple things of classical and operant animal
as well as all acts of social and economic complexity of the human is designed to
ts maximize the effect, and also very helpful in learning computer and robot. RL aims to fi nd
mapping from situations to appropriate actions, in which a reward is maxi-
Inventions in steam engines, cotton mills, and iron works converged in the
eighteenth century to propel the First Industrial Revolution. Inventions in
internal combustion engines, electrification, and steelmaking in the nineteenth
century ushered in the Second Industrial Revolution. Today, twentieth-century
inventions in digital technology are being conjoined with twenty-first-century
innovations in software, materials and advanced manufacturing processes,
robotics, and web-based services to inaugurate the Third Industrial Revolution.
There are a large and increasing number of processes for making PMC parts. Many are not very labor-intensive and can make near-net shape components. For thermoplastic matrices reinforced with discontinuous fibers, one of the most widely used processes is injection molding. However, as discussed in Section 9.3, the stiffness and strength of resulting parts are relatively low. This section focuses on processes for making composites with continuous fibers. Many PMC processes combine fibers and matrices directly.
The earthquake motion is assigned
classified by Japan's land area is classified into three categories according to level
seismic risk and adjust the seismic motion by using the regional adjustment factor of 1.0, 0.85
and 0.7 depending on the classification of the area.
Meanwhile, the studies to calculate seismic waveforms unique to the target area of seismic
design has been conducted in recent years.
Fiber Reinforced Polymers are by no means new to this world. It is only because of our fascination with petrochemical and non-petrochemical products that these wonderful materials exist. In fact, the polymers can be considered and used in the construction and construction repair. The petrochemical polymers are of low cost and are used more that natural materials.
The plant Cannabis sativa L. has a long history for human being since about BC 2000 for its use as fiber material, food and folk medicine; cannabis (hemp, marijuana) means the whole plant itself and its dried products except for its stem and seeds. The word “hashish” is mainly used for the resin of the cannabis plant.
Generally the term photonic crystal refers to two dimensional (2-D) and three
dimensional (3-D) structures. Using 2-D and 3-D photonic crystals it is possible to
control the propagation of light at arbitrary angles of incidence and not only the light
normally incident as is the case for conventional optical films. Further, using photonic
crystals, it is possible to achieve optical functionality not possible using conventional
optical materials. This book provides a complete overview about photonic crystals
including properties, applications, approaches and methods for the study....
Each section includes chapters with interesting topics.
Authors spread around the world have been resolved so we are delighted that this book represents
research in promising high.
Material properties are described in more creative ways for the standard components
or biological materials and sources of natural materials. Commonly used materials such as glass,
carbon, epoxy resin, concrete, ... described the characteristics improve or
construction work. Waste materials use and recycling is the next step and it is a
important way how to save resources and our environment....
New analytical strategies and techniques are necessary to meet requirements of modern technologies and new materials. In this sense, this book provides a thorough review of current analytical approaches, industrial practices, and strategies in Fourier transform application.
Common engineering materials reach in many engineering applications such as
automotive or aerospace; their limits and new developments are required to fulfill
increasing demands on performance and characteristics. The properties of mate-
rials can be increased, for example, by combining different materials to achieve
better properties than a single constituent or by shaping the material or constituents
in a specific structure. Many of these new materials reveal a much more complex
behavior than traditional engineering materials due to their advanced structure or
Due to their combined superior chemical and physical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
are recognized to have a huge potential in many fields of applications (Ajayan, 1999; Rao et
al., 2001; Dai, 2002; Van Noorden, 2011). These molecular-scale tubes of graphitic carbon are
one of the stiffest and strongest fibers known. Besides, they have remarkable electronic,
optical, thermal and chemical properties.
Fiber composite technology is based on taking advantage of the high strength and
high stiffness of fibers, which are combined with matrix materials of similar/
dissimilar natures in various ways, creating inevitable interfaces. In fiber composites,
both the fiber and the matrix retain their original physical and chemical identities,
yet together they produce a combination of mechanical properties that cannot be
achieved with either of the constituents acting alone, due to the presence of an
interface between these two constituents.
Sewage sludge as an uncalled for product of wastewater treatment poses the challenge to
society of disposing of it, but at the same time gives us the opportunity of beneficial use by
closing the cycle of nutrients: sludge derived from agricultural activity must return to soil if
a sustainable and ecologically sound management of these materials is desirable (SEQUI et
al. 2000). At present the major ways of disposing of sewage sludges are deposition, landfill
and incineration, only part of the sludges are used in agriculture. ...