Xem 1-20 trên 44 kết quả Field ecology
  • The discipline of Landscape Ecology is rapidly emerging as a motive force, both in the domain of theoretical ecology, and in applied fields such as biodiversity conservation planning. Without it and its further development, the more reductionist elements of, and approaches to, ecology will continue to make the discipline decreasingly relevant to land management, which will be made totally on the basis of politics and socioeconomics.

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  • Urban Ecology is the study of ecosystems that include humans living in cities and urbanizing landscapes. It is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that aims to understand how human and ecological processes can coexist in human-dominated systems and help societies with their efforts to become more sustainable. It has deep roots in many disciplines including sociology, geography, urban planning, landscape architecture, engineering, economics, anthropology, climatology, public health, and ecology.

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  • Agroecology encompasses not only aspects of ecology and agriculture, but the ecology of sustainable food production systems, including the technology and related societal and cultural values (e.g. Gliessman 1998; Altieri and Hecht 1990; Altieri 1989, 1987, 1983) to better promote healthy and functional environments for a sustainable quality of life (see also Castillo et al. 2005). To provide effective com munication regarding the status and advances in this burgeoning field, connections must be established with many disciplines including (but not limited to)...

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  • It is intended that this book be suitable for a variety of engineers and ecologists, who may wish to gain an introduction to the rapidly growing field of ecological and environmental modelling. An understanding of the fundamentals of environmental problems and ecology, as presented for instance in the textbook Principles of Environmental Science and Technology is assumed. Furthermore, it is assumed that the reader has either a fundamental knowledge of differential equations and matrix calculations or has read the Appendix, which gives a brief introduction to these topics....

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  • Forests play a major role in global carbon (C) cycle, and the carbon density (CD) could reflect its ecological function of C sequestration. Study on the CD of different forest types on a community scale is crucial to characterize in depth the capacity of forest C sequestration.

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  • The EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is probably the most significant legislative instrument in the water field that was introduced on an international basis for many years. It moves towards integrated environmental management with key objectives to prevent any further deterioration of water bodies, and protect and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems and associated wetlands. It aims to promote sustainable water consumption and will contribute to mitigating the effects of floods and droughts.

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  • Human activities are affecting the global environment in myriad ways, with numerous direct and indirect effects on ecosystems. The climate and atmospheric composition of Earth are changing rapidly. Humans have directly modified half of the ice-free terrestrial surface and use 40% of terrestrial production. Our actions are causing the sixth major extinction event in the history of life on Earth and are radically modifying the interactions among forests, fields, streams, and oceans.

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  • The idea to edit this book started with an e-mail from Suzanne Mekking of Springer Science and Business Media who wanted to make an appointment to talk about current needs for new books in the field of aquatic sciences. During that meeting, she attempted to persuade me into writing a book about my field of research – ecological interactions among coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds by reef fishes. At first, I was not interested due to the large amount of work this would encompass, and my already overloaded work schedule....

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  • Landscape ecology has emerged in the past decade as an important and useful tool for land-use planners and landscape architects. While professionals and scholars have begun to incorporate aspects of this new field into their work, there remains a need for a summary of key principles and how they might be applied in design and planning.This volume fills that need. It is a concise handbook that lists and illustrates key principles in the field, presenting specific examples of how the principles can be applied in a range of scales and diverse types of landscapes around the world....

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  • In 1950, the United States Department of Energy (then the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission) began purchasing the land that became the present Savannah River Site (SRS). All residents were removed (figure A), and in 1951 the government closed the site to the public to begin work on production of nuclear weapons materials. At the time, abandoned agricultural fields dominated upland areas, and the SRS and the USDA Forest Service initiated an aggressive reforestation program.

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  • This book is an introduction to the exciting new field of ecological genomics, for use in MSc courses and by those beginning their PhD studies. When we became involved in a national research programme on ecological genomics, or ecogenomics as it became known, we realized that information on this newly emerging subject needed to be brought together. In order to start up a research programme in such a new discipline, not only the students, but also we as teachers, had to get to grips with the subject.

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  • Information gathered from the remaining intact tropical habitats might seem to deserve special treatment, for such data can be thought to represent precise, finely tuned biological interrelationships. Their evolutionary reason for existence might be revealed simply in their current ecology. Tropical data in general are often deemed more significant than comparable data taken in other habitats. Like the first-mentioned bias, this belief can encourage creative speculation, but sometimes it diminishes the accuracy with which the actual setting of a field study is examined or described....

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  • IN RECENT YEARS it has become impossible to talk about man's relation to nature without referring to "ecology." This peculiar field of study has been suddenly called on, in a manner unusual even in our scienceimpressed age, to playa central intellectual role. Such leading scientists in this area as Rachel Carson, Barry Commoner, Eugene Odum, Paul Ehrlich, and others, have become our new delphic voices, writing bestsellers, appearing in the media, shaping government policies, even serving as moral touchstones.

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  • The study of wetland plants has been of interest to botanists for many years, but the need to identify and understand these plants has expanded dramatically since the 1970s. At that time, ecologists began to make known the vital role that wetlands play in our landscapes. The image of wetlands has shifted from that of mosquito-ridden wastelands to natural areas of critical importance. Because the field of wetland ecology has expanded, so has the study of the plants that thrive there, and their role in ecosystem dynamics.

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  • In response to a growing need to bridge aspects of geography and ecology, Troll (1950, 1968) coined the term “landscape ecology,” which was adopted as a new scientific discipline. According to Troll (1968), the landscape can be studied in terms of its morphology, classification, and changes in time (history), as well as the functional relationships between its components, which he called landscape ecology. Troll also considered that problems of landscape protection as well as management should be included in geographical analyses of landscapes.

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  • When I was asked by Timber Press to write a new book on resins, including amber—Howes’s 1949 Vegetable Gums and Resins was the most recent such effort—the breadth of interdisciplinary coverage seemed too ambitious for an individual person. There have been so many advances in resin research in the past half century, including the development of new fields of research such as chemical ecology, and the exploration of other interesting facets about resins made possible by new chemical, molecular, and microscopic techniques.

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  • This text is intended as a graduate level introduction to the new field of ecological engineering. It is really a book about ecosystems and how they can be engineered to solve various environmental problems. The Earth’s biosphere contains a tremendous variety of existing ecosystems, and ecosystems that never existed before are being created by mixing species

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  • Suppose we have a function f (x) where the variable x may be a vector of many dimensions. We seek the point x∗ such that f (x∗) is the maximum value among all possible f (x). This point x∗ is called the global optimum of the function f (x). It is possible that x∗ is a unique point but it is also possible that there are several points that share the maximal value f (x∗). Optimization is a field of mathematics that concerns itself with finding the point x∗ given the function f (x).

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  • Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development has been created from the merger of Agricultural Development Council (A/D/C), International Agricultural Development Service (lADS) and Winrock International Livestock Researclk and Training Center (WILRTC). Suggested citation: Gordon R. CONWAY, Agroecosystem Analysis for Research and Development. Bangkok: Winrock International, 1986. The publication and distribution of the Papers On Survey Research Methodology have been r.

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  • Dynamical systems theory in mathematical biology and environmental science has attracted much attention from many scientific fields as well as mathematics. For example, “chaos” is one of its typical topics. Recently the preservation of endangered species has become one of the most important issues in biology and environmental science, because of the recent rapid loss of biodiversity in the world. In this respect, permanence or persistence, new concepts in dynamical systems theory, seem important.

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