Physical Phenomena at High Magnetic Fields-IV (PPHMF-IV) was the fourth
conference sponsored by the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL).
The previous conferences were held in May, 1991, 1995, and 1998. These meetings
brought together experts in scientific research areas where high magnetic fields
could make an important impact.
PPHMF-III devoted substantial time to reviewing the state of many fields in
regard to the role of high magnetic fields, such as semiconductors, heavy fermions,
superconductivity, and molecular conductors.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometric technique based on optical
coherent gating. In OCT, imaging contrast originates from the sample inhomogeneous
scattering properties that are linearly dependent on the sample’s refractive indices.
OCT offers axial resolution of 2‐15 μm and penetration depth around 2 mm. Since its
invention in the late 1980s and early 1990s, OCT has experienced explosive growth in
both technology and application.
Carbon nanotubes are one of the most intriguing new materials with extraordinary properties being discovered in the last decade. The unique structure of carbon nanotubes provides nanotubes with extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties. The outstanding properties that these materials possess have opened new interesting researches areas in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Although nanotubes are very promising in a wide variety of fields, application of individual nanotubes for large scale production has been limited....
From its inception nearly 30 years ago, the optical subdiscipline now referred to as nonimaging optics, has experienced dramatic growth. The term nonimaging optics is concerned with applications where imaging formation is not important but where effective and efficient collection , concentration, transport and distribution of light energy is - i.e. solar energy conversion, signal detection, illumination optics, measurement and testing. This book will incorporate the substantial developments of the past decade in this field.
The most comprehensive and up-to-date optics resource available
Prepared under the auspices of the Optical Society of America, the five carefully architected and cross-referenced volumes of the Handbook of Optics, Third Edition, contain everything a student, scientist, or engineer requires to actively work in the field. From the design of complex optical systems to world-class research and development methods, this definitive publication provides unparalleled access to the fundamentals of the discipline and its greatest minds....
The book embraces a wide spectrum of problems falling under the concepts of "Quantum optics" and "Laser experiments". These actively developing branches of physics are of great significance both for theoretical understanding of the quantum nature of optical phenomena and for practical applications.
Since the birth of the field of optical biosensors, the pace of evolution of this
field has been swift. While myriad reports have appeared describing applications
and advancements in optical biosensor technology, few existing volumes are
dedicated to a synopsis of this field. Since the development of optical biosensors
mirrors the advances in the rapidly evolving telecommunications industry, we
deemed the time to be ripe for such an opus.
Optical communication is very much useful in telecommunication systems, data processing and networking. It consists of a transmitter that encodes a message into an optical signal, a channel that carries the signal to its desired destination, and a receiver that reproduces the message from the received optical signal. It presents up to date results on communication systems, along with the explanations of their relevance, from leading researchers in this field.
The 21st century is said to be a photon-century. People meet contemporary optics
(holography, as well) applications everywhere. It would be appropriate to increase the
common education level in this field for people to be able to understand new surrounding
technologies, entering our everyday lives. Optics serves as an important part of many
scientific experimental methods. This way, such information could be useful also for
researchers without a professional optical education.
For over four decades there has been continuous progress in adaptive optics technology, theory, and systems development. Recently there also has been an explosion of applications of adaptive optics throughout the fields of communications and medicine in addition to its original uses in astronomy and beam propagation. This volume is a compilation of research and tutorials from a variety of international authors with expertise in theory, engineering, and technology.
During the years surrounding the new millennium, the field of vibrational optical activity (VOA),
comprised principally of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and vibrational Raman optical activity
(ROA), underwent a transition from a specialized area of research that had been practiced by a handful
of pioneers into an important newfield of spectroscopy practiced by an increasing number of scientists
worldwide. This transition was made possible by the development of commercial instrumentation and
software for the routine measurement and quantum chemical calculation ofVOA.
Over the last few years, there has been a convergence between the fields
of ultrafast science, nonlinear optics, optical frequency metrology, and
precision laser spectroscopy. These fields have been developing largely
independently since the birth of the laser, reaching remarkable levels of
Materials are important to mankind because of the benefits that can be derived from the manipulation of their properties, for example electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, magnetization, optical transmittance, strength and toughness. Materials science is a broad field and can be considered to be an interdisciplinary area. Included within it are the studies of the structure and properties of any material, the creation of new types of materials, and the manipulation of a material's properties to suit the needs of a specific application....
We live in a time when digital information plays a key role in various fields. Whether we
look towards communications, industry, medicine, scientific research or entertainment,
we find digital images to be heavily employed. The high volume of stored and
transacted digital images, together with the increasing availability of advanced digital
image acquisition and display techniques and devices, came with a growing need for
novel, fast and intelligent algorithms for the digital manipulation of digital images....
Research activities in laser physics and in photonics technologies over the last two
decades have continuously produced a large diversity of new advances. Several
examples illustrate the major impact of optics in the quantum sciences, engineering,
metrology, communication fiber networks, or high-capacity data storage. Besides
these established fields of research and development for industry or for the consumer
markets, laser optics will certainly disseminate in the near future in new areas such
as biology, chemistry, medicine, or nanotechnologies.
The Handbook of Spectroscopy is intended to serve as an authoritative reference
source for a broad audience involved in the research, teaching, learning, and practice
of spectroscopic technologies. Spectroscopy is defined as the science that deals
with interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter.
The chemical sensor plays an essential role in the fields of environmental conservation and monitoring, disaster and disease prevention, and industrial analysis. A typical chemical sensor is a device that transforms chemical information in a selective and reversible way, ranging from the concentration of a specific sample component to total composition analysis, into an analytically useful signal.
he characterization of individual molecules has been a scientifically attractive and challenging task for decades, and remains so today. New technological developments have facilitated great progress in our understanding of the structure and behavior of single atoms and molecules in various environments.
The dramatic reduction in transmission loss of optical fibers coupled with very important
developments in the area of light sources and detectors have resulted in phenomenal
growth of the fiber optic industry during the last 35 years or so. Indeed,
the birth of optical fiber communication systems coincided with the fabrication of
low-loss optical fibers and the operation of room-temperature semiconductor lasers
in 1970. Since then, scientific and technological growth in this field has been phenomenal.