Financial and monetary

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  • Chapter 14 introduce to the bank of Canada and monetary policy. In this chapter you will learn: The main functions of the bank of Canada, how the Bank of Canada can expand or contract the money supply, the components of money demand, how the equilibrium interest rate is determined in the money market, the mechanism by which the interest rate affects GDP.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'financial statement analysis a practitioner's guide third edition - martin fridson fernado alvarez', ngoại ngữ, anh văn thương mại phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • This paper considers the main elements of the standard pattern of fi nancial liberalization that has become widely prevalent in developing countries. The theoretical arguments in favour of such liberalization are considered and critiqued, and the political economy of such measures is discussed. The problems for developing countries, with respect to fi nancial fragility and the greater propensity to crisis, as well as the negative defl ationary and developmental effects, are discussed.

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  • Sole Proprietorship A business owned by a single individual. Owner maintains title to the firm’s assets. Owner has unlimited liability. 2) Partnership Similar to a sole proprietorship, except that there are two or more owners. General Partnership All partners have unlimited liability. 2b) Limited Partnership Consists of one or more general partners, who have unlimited liability, and One or more limited partners (investors) whose liability is limited to the amount of their investment in the business.

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  • Current Assets: assets that are relatively liquid, and are expected to be converted to cash within a year. Cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable, inventories, prepaid expenses. Current Assets: assets that are relatively liquid, and are expected to be converted to cash within a year. Cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable, inventories, prepaid expenses. Fixed Assets: machinery and equipment, buildings, and land.

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  • Project sales revenues and expenses. 2) Estimate current assets and fixed assets necessary to support projected sales. Percent of sales forecast Budgets indicate the amount and timing of future financing needs. Budgets provide a basis for taking corrective action if budgeted and actual figures do not match. Budgets provide the basis for performance evaluation.

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  • Basic Skills: (Time value of money, Financial Statements) Investments: (Stocks, Bonds, Risk and Return) Corporate Finance: (The Investment Decision - Capital Budgeting) For Investors, the rate of return on a security is a benefit of investing. For Financial Managers, that same rate of return is a cost of raising funds that are needed to operate the firm. In other words, the cost of raising funds is the firm’s cost of capital.

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  • The use of fixed operating costs as opposed to variable operating costs. A firm with relatively high fixed operating costs will experience more variable operating income if sales change. The variability or uncertainty of a firm’s earnings per share (EPS) and the increased probability of insolvency that arises when a firm uses financial leverage.

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  • In a “perfect world” environment with no taxes, no transaction costs and perfectly efficient financial markets, capital structure does not matter. This is known as the Independence hypothesis: firm value is independent of capital structure.

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  • • Permanent Assets (those held 1 year) – should be financed with permanent and spontaneous sources of financing. • Temporary Assets (those held • Permanent Financing – intermediate-term loans, long-term debt, preferred stock, common stock • Spontaneous Financing – accounts payable that arise spontaneously in day-to-day operations (trade credit, wages payable, accrued interest and taxes) • Short-term financing – unsecured bank loans, commercial paper, loans secured by A/R or inventory...

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  • Bonds pay fixed coupon (interest) payments at fixed intervals (usually every 6 months) and pay the par value at maturity. Debentures - unsecured bonds. Subordinated debentures - unsecured “junior” debt. Mortgage bonds - secured bonds. Zeros - bonds that pay only par value at maturity; no coupons. Junk bonds - speculative or below-investment grade bonds; rated BB and below. High-yield bonds. Eurobonds - bonds denominated in one currency and sold in another country. (Borrowing overseas). example - suppose Disney decides to sell $1,000 bonds in France. These are U.S.

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  • The combination of opportunity and execution. Opportunities must be recognized, and Employees must be ready, willing and able to take advantage of the opportunities. Using the P/E ratio: If a firm’s P/E ratio is 20, then a dollar increase in earnings per share will create $20 in additional equity value per share. Problem: ignores R&D, which would reduce earnings per share, but should increase future earnings!

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  • Suppose the British increase demand for U.S. products. British importers buy the U.S. products to sell in England. They buy dollars with pounds, so they can pay U.S. firms in dollars. The demand for dollars increases, and forces up the £ / $ exchange rate, which makes U.S. products more expensive in England.

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  • Public Offering – Firm issues securities, which are made available to both individual and institutional investors. • Private Placement – Securities are offered and sold to a limited number of investors. Primary Market –Market in which new issues of a security are sold to initial buyers. • Secondary Market –Market in which previously issued securities are traded.

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  • In the surnmero f 1997, whent he Federal ReserveB anko f Bostons elected the topic for its fortysecond annual economicc onference, manyp undits werea sking: "Is the business cycle dead, or at least permanently dampened?"B y the time the Bank’s conference convenedi n June 1998, the same pundits queried: "What caused the massive recessions in Asia?" and "Can the United States remain ’an oasis of prosperity,’ as Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan termed it, while economiesw orldwidea re under siege from financial crises?" Howq uickly things change! BeyondS hocks:W hatC ausesB usiness Cycles ? t...

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  • But how far should the public sector go in defining the terms of maturity transformation?. It would be reassuring to imagine that underlying saving and investment propensities of the private sector define the real interest rate in normal times. Keynes threw some doubt on this classical view. In addition, the fact is that government policies nowadays dominate the terms of maturity transformation in modern economies. Very large government debt defines the yield curve.

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  • Having ranked countries by their relative macroeconomic performance during the recent crisis, we explore possible explanations for this cross-economy variation. Table 2 summarises four categories of variables measuring: banking system structure, trade openness, financial openness, and monetary and fiscal policy frameworks. Except where otherwise noted, all of these variables are measured at the end of 2007. We also consider the policy response to the crisis, looking at measures such as monetary policy easing, fiscal stimulus and bank bailouts.

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  • The world’s leading central banks played a key role in bringing the financial system and the economy back to safe harbor after the peak of the financial crisis in 2008. They acted in unprecedented fashion to prevent the financial system from capsizing and, over time, to restore financial and economic stability. Chapter 16 provides knowledge of the structure of central banks: The federal reserve and the European central bank.

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  • Chapter 21 - Output, inflation, and monetary policy. The objective of this chapter is to understand fluctuations in inflation and real output and how central banks use conventional interest-rate policy to stabilize them. We will develop a macroeconomic model of fluctuations in the business cycle in which monetary policy plays a central role.

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  • Lecture topics will include: behavioral finance, financial technology, financial instruments, commercial banking, investment banking, financial markets and institutions, real estate, regulation, monetary policy, and democratization of finance.

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