Financial appraisal

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  • Chapter 1 introduces the concept of capital budgeting, and sets out the structure of the book. The important points are: Capital budgeting is the most significant financial activity of the firm. Capital budgeting determines the core activities of the firm over a long term future. Capital budgeting decisions must be made carefully and rationally.

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  • In the financial appraisal of a project, the cashflow statements are constructed from two points of view: the Total Investment (TI) Point of View and the Equity Point of View. One of the most important issues is the estimation of the correct financial discount rates for the two points of view. In the presence of taxes, the benefit of the tax shield from the interest deduction may be excluded or included in the free cashflow (FCF) of the project. Depending on whether the tax shield is included or excluded, the formulas for the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) will be different.

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  • It would not be exaggerating to argue that financial risk analysis is one of the most important and most difficult components of project appraisal. Such analysis is especially important because the financial viability of a project may be critical for its long-term sustainability and survivability. Its particular difficulty is due to the inherent challenge of pricing risk with market

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  • CHAPTER 5 PROJECTION OF FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS. Up to this point, we’ve discussed appraisal of performance and management of operating funds in the context of past decisions involving investments, operations, and financing.

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  • • Economies of Scale ex: reduce administrative expenses as a percentage of sales. • Tax Benefits ex: target firm has tax credits from operating losses, and lacks the income to use the credits. • Unused Debt Potential ex: merging with a firm that has little debt increases debt capacity.

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  • The aim of this text is to explain the meaning and use of the principal accountancy statements,models and activities in business life. The word ‘statements’ includes balance sheets, profit and loss accounts, cash flow statements and budget reports. The word ‘models’is used to mean the exercises of costing, cash flow forecasting, capital expenditure appraising and other modelling which is essential for sound business decision making. The word ‘activities’covers the topics of accounting systems and controls, record keeping (book keeping) and the operation of the budget process.

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  • return on investment I Covers the key areas of return on investment, from cost benefit analysis and risk analysis to accounting techniques and the balanced scorecard I Examples and lessons from some of the world’s most successful businesses, including oil and telecommunications giants, and ideas from the smartest thinkers, including Mack Hanan and Warren Buffet I Includes a glossary of key concepts and a comprehensive .

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  • This paper was prepared for the purpose of presenting the methodology and uses of the Monte Carlo simulation technique as applied in the evaluation of investment projects to analyse and assess risk. The first part of the paper highlights the importance of risk analysis in investment appraisal. The second part presents the various stages in the application of the risk analysis process. The third part examines the interpretation of the re

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  • Business models have become the primary tools for the financial analysis of nearly all major business decisions. However, the structure and design of most models have evolved without reference to an effective business-modelling methodology. In writing this book we hope to provide the terms of reference for best-practice business modelling.

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  • Chapter 3: Financial Audit The department also maintains demand deposit bank accounts, which are held separately from the State Treasury. Capital Assets Capital assets are not capitalized in the governmental funds used to acquire or construct them. Instead, capital acquisition and construction are reflected as expenditures in governmental funds, and the related assets are reported in the statement of net assets. Capital assets are recorded at cost on the date of acquisition, or if donated, at appraised value on the date of donation.

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  • These guidelines specify standard appraisal procedures for Japanese real estate appraisers (the only profession that is licensed and registered by the government by law. Hereinafter “Japanese Appraisers”) to appraise overseas real estate for investment purposes. As the globalization of the real estate market progresses, cross-border real estate investment is gaining momentum. In addition, real estate investment trust (REIT) markets have been set up in the past few years, and international competition in real estate markets is heightening rapidly....

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  • In the early 1980s, structural adjustment programs had serious social costs for most African countries, particularly in terms of job loss. An unemployment rate of about 30.0 percent resulted from cuts in govern- ment payrolls and the restructuring or liquidation of enterprises and financial institutions. The situation was aggravated by urbanization, making the labor supply particularly elastic in our countries. In Senegal in 1989, young people accounted for 67.2 percent of the total number of unemployed men and 52.0 percent of the total number of unemployed women.

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  • The final step in appraising records is determining their retention period. Keeping records, either in offices or storage areas, is very expensive and the actual or potential value of the records must be weighed against the cost. Most managers tend to keep records too long “just in case” and unwittingly extend the agency liability for as long as the records exist. Except for perpetual records, most administrative records should only be kept two or three years and certainly not more than five.

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  • Childhood obesity is a global epidemic and rising trends in overweight and obesity are apparent in both developed and developing countries. Available estimates for the period between the 1980s and 1990s show the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children increased by a magnitude of two to five times in developed countries (e.g. from 11% to over 30% in boys in Canada), and up to almost four times in developing countries (e.g. from 4% to 14% in Brazil).

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  • With the exceptions of EMBASE, Agricola and the Internet, selection of articles from the library databases and the International Journal of Obesity were carried out in dupli- cate by two independent researchers blinded to each other’s selections. The continuously changing nature of the Inter- net impeded a duplicate selection. Because of time con- straints, selection was not carried out in duplicate for Agricola and Embase, which were added after the first search had been conducted.

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  • Content: Chapter 1 – Introduction to investment appraisal, chapter 2 – Advanced investment appraisal, chapter 3 – Capital markets, chapter 4 – Sources of finance, chapter 5 – Working capital and short term financial management, chapter 6 – Cost of capital, chapter 7 – Portfolio theory and CAPM, chapter 8 – Efficient market hypothesis and dividend policy, chapter 9 – Risk management, chapter 10 – Hedging and derivatives.

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  • Even if you don’t plan to sell your investment property right away, an appraiser will help you determine whether or not your investment is a good one financially. In fact, most lenders will require a full appraisal of any property to assure that they’re making a sound move by funding your purchase. You can check newspapers for current prices on similar properties. But you might also consider hiring an appraiser. By providing recent sales prices on similar homes, an appraiser can help you determine a current market value for the home you’ve got your eye on.

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  • The third approach, modern capital budgeting, recognises that today’s (present) value of an investment asset is the cash flow it can generate in the future, not the returns it has provided in the past. Accordingly, investment appraisal must adopt an ‘ex ante’ - forward- looking analysis - as distinct from the backward-looking focus of the traditional financial approaches typified by the ROI calculation.

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